Berscheid, E., & Reis, H. T. (). Attraction and close relationships. In D. Gilbert , S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey, (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (4th ed.) (pp. PS28A Interpersonal Attraction & Close Relationship. Chapter OverviewThe need to affiliate is increased by intense fear or stress and decreased by social anxiety. Attachment is an emotional bond to someone.
The experiences we have and the outcomes we receive in virtually all areas of our existence—developmental, educational, occupational, social, relational, physical, and mental, to name a few—are deeply and continuously affected by the sentiments, feelings, and attitudes we evoke in others.
Although interpersonal attraction permeates and influences all human interactions and relationships, it plays a particularly important role in the formation and development of voluntary close relationships such as friendships and romantic relationships. Thus, most theoretical and empirical work conducted on interpersonal attraction and relationship development—and virtually all work cited in this bibliography—is focused on voluntary relationships and may not be applicable to nonvoluntary relationships [e.
The first section of this article introduces general review articles and books that summarize the scientific literature on interpersonal attraction and close relationship development.
The second section focuses on theories of attraction and includes citations for the early models that focused primarily on attraction between strangers in lab settings, as well as more general process-oriented models that explain attraction in initial encounters and throughout subsequent relationship development.
The third section presents research on the general factors that have been shown to generate liking and spark relationship initiation and development e.
Attraction and Close Relationships Social Psychology. - ppt download
General Overviews Interpersonal attraction is one of the most commonly studied topics in the field of psychology. Social psychologists, particularly those specializing in attitudes, social perception and cognition, impression formation, and close relationships, have made the most sustained contributions to the topic.
One of the earliest and most significant reference works is Huston This edited work contains chapters exploring multiple facets of interpersonal attraction, written by premier scholars, and provides a solid introduction to early attraction theory and research. Equally important are the early reviews— NewcombByrne and Griffittand Huston and Levinger Berscheid and Berscheid and Reisas well as the entirety of the edited books Hendrick and Hendrick and Sprecher, et al.
In The handbook of social psychology. Edited by Gardner Lindzey and Elliot Aronson, — Berscheid, Ellen, and Harry T. Attraction and close relationships. Edited by Daniel T. The more often we are exposed to a stimulus, the more we come to like that stimulus. Familiarity can influence our self-evaluations. Getting Drawn In We react more favorably to others who are physically attractive than to those who are not.
Bias for beauty is pervasive. Is physical beauty an objective or subjective quality?
Inherently rewarding to be in the company of people who are aesthetically appealing. Good-looking people do have more friends, better social skills, and a more active sex life.
But beauty is not related to objective measures of intelligence, personality, adjustment, or self-esteem. Attributional problems with being good-looking: Matching is predictive of progress in a relationship.
Attraction and Close Relationships Social Psychology.
Research shows that complementarity does not influence attraction. People prefer relationships that are psychologically balanced. A state of balance exists when the relationship is characterized by reciprocity.
Equity Theory Most content with a relationship when the ratio between the benefits and contributions is similar for both partners. Balance is what counts. The Evolution of Desire Men and women by nature must differ in their optimal mating behaviors.