The relationship between Arkady and Bazarov - Daniel's Notes - English
The novel depicts the problems inherent with the emancipation reforms that freed the Relations are awkward with all of them until Bazarov and Arkady leave. Rarely do we hear Bazarov say anything complimentary about Arkady. He should . From the start, Arkady functions like the perfect public relations manager for. It is in Bazarov's relationship to Odintsova that we find a contradictory vein running He is willing to talk about society, about social questions, about science; but Petrovich remarks Bazarov's "almost Satanic pride," while Arkady, in chapter.
Although Arkady denies that he spoke out of family feelings but rather out of justice, it is clear that he does want to defend his family because he loves them and he does not want to admit that to Bazarov because it might be perceived as a sign of weakness The setting of the garden itself is a reference to both the prelapsarian and fallen state of the Garden of Eden. For Arkady, who appreciates nature, and Katya, who, like Fenichka, is associated with flowers throughout the novel, the garden reveals their aesthetic appreciation for nature.
I can see that I am going to surprise you. I seem to remember your reproaching me yesterday for a lack of seriousness.
That reproach is often leveled at. If I might hope. Arkady is beleaguered with the fears that interfere with young love: Although we are not sure to what Odinstov is responding, Arkady recognizes his love for Katya is something larger and more significant than himself and provides him the spiritual regeneration that has incapacitated Bazarov and Odinstov. Life is not one of intellectual and spiritual fatigue for Arkady and Katy but instead one of renewal and harmony with each other and with the world.
This silence stands in stark contrast to the conversation of half-truths and sarcasm that transpires between Bazarov and Odinstov. It requires silence to appreciate not only each other but also nature and the arts. Silence consequently is the revealing but elliptical expression of love between Arkady and Katya and the hope of a happy and harmonious future together. The future of Arkady and Katya is one that combines the critical perspective of nihilism with the constructive aspects of regenerative liberalism as they marry and start a family with their son, little Nikolai.
Fathers and Sons: Chapter 20,21,22
Children are perhaps the most closely associated with the regenerative characteristics of life in the novel as they will continue the existence of Russia. Although Bazarov gets along with children, he does not have one due to his premature death. What is required is someone like Arkady who adopts the critical perspective of nihilism and the constructive elements of regenerative liberalism in order to reorient the individual and to improve society.
Unlike his father, Nikolai, who had aspirations for reforming his estate to become profitable but lacked the critical perspective to accomplish this project, Arkady is able to implement reform because of his rejection of nihilism and embracement of regenerative liberalism.
A preoccupation only with the family, the arts, and nature does not necessarily result into practical results, e. Regenerative liberalism, therefore, is the psychological capacity to integrate emotions and reason for the sake of positive social and political action. It adopts the critical perspective of nihilism but also preserves the traditional values of the family, the arts, and nature as regenerative qualities that enable us to identify and empathize with others.
In this sense, Arkady and his family represent a positive path for Russia to reform itself as a liberal polity. As he declared his love to Katya, Arkady recognizes that the debt he owes her in changing him from a callow youth into a mature adult: However, this recognition only transpires when he becomes confident enough to declare his love clearly to Katya, who in turn reciprocates it.
It prompts people to identify and to empathize with others and therefore leads them to positive social and political action in reforming and renewing society.
Love is the existential motivation that connects people to the regenerative qualities of life, such as the family and nature, and provides the principle for regenerative liberalism. The characters capable of love are able to be spiritually renewed and regenerated for the purposes of marriage, the family, and estate management, while those characters who are either unwilling or incapable of love lead a listless existence, self-imposed exile, or suffer premature death.
Again, it is not surprising that those who love have children — Nikolai and Fenchika, Arkady and Katya — whereas those who do not are barren: The symbolism is clear: But why are some characters capable of love and others not?
What we discover is that those characters most associated with the regenerative qualities of life are able to recall particular cherished memories of love that allow them to transcend their own isolated and material existence. Rather than seeing life as an object to be dominated and controlled, these characters perceive themselves as participants in life which is meant to be enjoyed and contemplated. This ability to recall cherished memories also enables Nikolai to understand the emotions and attitudes of the younger generation better than his brother.
Do you know what all this reminded me of, Pavel? Once I quarreled with our late mamma: It is a bitter pill but she must swallow it. The fact that Pavel was unable to trust someone, even one who had returned his love, suggests a psychology that perceives life not as a process in which to participate but as something to be controlled.
His desires for possession and certitude rather than being open to life with its unknown future preclude any possibility for him to remember. Nikolai understands himself not as an isolated spark that exists in an indifferent world but as a thinking and feeling element in a universe of thought and emotion. Whereas Nikolai, and later Arkady, view themselves as part of an orderly and significant design, Bazarov sees himself as a brief, isolated entity existing in a vast void: The tiny bit of space I occupy is so minute in comparison with the rest of the universe, where I am not and which is not concerned with me; and the period of time in which it is my lot to live is so infinitesimal compared with the eternity in which I have not been and shall not be.
And yet here, in this atom which is myself, in this mathematical point, blood circulates, the brain operates and aspires to something too. What a monstrous business! For the former, the individual is both a materialist and spiritual entity that belongs to an orderly and significant design; for the latter, the individual is a materialist being that is isolated and without inherent meaning.
In this sense, Odinstov is similar to Pavel in that both possess memories but find no meaning in them: So many memories and so little worth remembering, and in front of me, a long, long road without a goal. Her role in the novel is significant because she could have persuaded Bazarov from his nihilist conclusions, if she were capable of love. Although Bazarov has reduced love to a materialist nature and, once his physical form disappears, so will his love, he also is referring to the relationship between Odinstov and himself.
Odinstov will not forget that Bazarov existed, but she will forget the feelings that they had with one another.
I merely see a kind of blur. Why, he was a great figure in his day. He also remembers the goodness of his father despite his lack of estate management skills and his outdated philosophical ideas: Memory consequently is not merely a recollection of events. Memory therefore is the ultimate form through which love is conveyed and sustained from one human being to another, transforming both the individual and society into regeneration as opposed to destruction.
Supporting each other, they walk with heavy steps; they go up to the iron railing, fall on their knees and weep long and bitterly, and long and yearningly they gaze at the silent stone beneath which their son is lying; exchanging a brief word, they brush the dust from the stone, set a branch of a fir-tree right, and then resume their prayers, unable to tear themselves away from the place where they feel nearer to their son, to their memories of him. But are those prayers of theirs, all fruitless?
Is it their love, their hallowed selfless love, not omnipotent? The portraits of Bazarov, Arkady, and the other characters are an examination of the differences within a generation that presents two possible forms of reform: Regenerative liberalism is one that integrates emotions and reason for the sake of positive social and political action. The philosophical program of nihilism is refuted by Turgenev not only by the dramatic action and outcome of the characters but also by the cherished memory of Bazarov itself.
That is, after his death, Bazarov is remembered fondly by his family and friends, allowing him to transcend death only through the love of other people. A culture that rejects the nihilist conclusions of Bazarov could foster a common perspective for all citizens on the common objects that they should love and cherish.
A liberalism that values the principle of love that is sustained in memory can possibly provide a sense of the common good and preserve traditions for a liberal regime. Practically speaking, these ideas would be best translated into local communities, where the bonds of love and memory are the strongest: I want to thank Jerry Herbel and Peter Haworth as well as the anonymous referees for their comments.
Harvard University Press, It is also worth noting that contemporary critics of liberalism neglect the importance of place in their criticisms, too. Daniel Bell, Communitarians and its Critics Oxford: Liberals and Communitarians Oxford: Cambridge University Press, ; Taylor, Charles.
Sources of Self Cambridge, MA: Ellis Sandoz Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, Cambridge University Press, Also refer to N. Pereira, The Thought and Teachings of N. A Fence Around the Empire: Duke University Press, For more about censorship in Tsarist Russia, refer to Denis M. Censorship in Tsarist Russia on microfiche Leiden, Netherlands: Rosemary Edmonds New York: Citations in the text are page numbers. Clarendon Pres, Pritchett, The Gentle Barbarian: Methuen,62; H. Studies of Ten Russian Writers, ed.
University of California Press, Studies in Nineteenth Century Realism, ed. Oxford University Press, University of Oxford,74; also refer to William C. His Life and Times New York: Random House,;Avrahm Yarmolinsky, Turgenev: Orion, Justus notes that this conflict in Bazarov is an unconscious and psychologically acceptable way for him to admire nature aesthetically via. Cornell University Press, University of Oxford, ;H. However, such an interpretation ignores the dramatic context and certain passages in the novel that clearly establishes the mutual attraction: Even his face changed when he talked to her: University of Missouri Press, University of Chicago Press, It also makes the conclusion of the novel neither sentimental nor explicitly religious.
Turgenev, Fathers and Sons. Nikolai Kirsanov notes to his brother, Pavel, how they are "behind the times" and that the younger generation has surpassed them.
He is wistful, however, at the implications of this gap: You are here to take our places. The conversation went on in this way for about an hour. A son is a separate piece cut off. Arkady and Katya's, and Nikolai Petrovitch and Fenitchka's.
As Turgenev's narrator says, "their fortunes are beginning to mend. In the beginning, when Nikolai's farm, Maryino, is described, the peasant's portion is depicted as follows: Nikolai often "sighed, and was gloomy; he felt that the thing could not go on without money, and his money was almost spent. When Arkady first arrives at the residence, the reader sees that "his whole house consisted of six tiny rooms. Nihilism In the story, Turgenev sets up a conflict between the older generation of fathers who believe in art and other irrational activities, and the nihilists—scientific materialists like Bazarov who accept nothing.
Bazarov is very critical of anything that does not serve a purpose, especially art. For their part, the older generation of Kirsanov men does not agree. Says Pavel to Bazarov, "If we listen to you, we shall find ourselves outside hu-manity, outside its laws. But one must construct too, you know. He was not a nihilist for nothing! Bazarov also experiences a change by the end of the novel. After he is slighted by Anna following his unprecedented profession of love, he tells her, "Before you is a poor mortal, who has come to his senses long ago, and hopes other people, too, have forgotten his follies.
While he is staying with his parents, they notice it too. He gave up walking in solitude, and began to seek society. Even though he has changed, allowed himself to love, and admitted the folly of some of his ways, he is not ready to embrace religion even on his deathbed. Topics for Further Study Research the specific beliefs of both the young radicals from the s and the older liberals from the s in Russia.
Create a picture, story, or some other sort of artistic effort in which half of the item represents the ideas of the radicals and half represents the liberals. Somewhere on this item, indicate the qualities you are trying to demonstrate for each half.
Fathers and Sons Study Guide | Novelguide
What are the similarities and differences between nihilism and existentialism? Research the current state of affairs in Russia, noting any particular reform efforts that are going on.
How do these differ from reforms that were happening in the mids? Research Russian art from the mids until the end of the nineteenth century and discuss whether it did or did not take a revolutionary approach, like much literature did.
In either case, find one painting that you like and write a report giving your interpretation of what the painting means, as well as any historical significance it may have. Research the complex history surrounding the emancipation of the serfs in Russia in the s and their gradual establishment as landowners. Write a journal entry from the perspective of either a recently freed serf or a former member of the landed aristocracy, describing your views on the emancipation reforms. Incorporate your research into your entry where necessary.
Suppose Bazarov had not died from typhus at the end of the book and an extra chapter had been added on to talk about what happened to him in the end. Based on the transformation he undergoes in the novel, how do you predict he would have spent the rest of his life?
Write a short plot summary detailing what would take place in this extra chapter. Love The idea of romantic love permeates the novel and is most apparent with Arkady and Bazarov, who experience two different types of love.
Arkady experiences a love that is based on friendship. Before he even meets his true love, Katya, he is smitten by Madame Anna Odintsov. Unfortunately, the older woman looks at him "as married sisters look at very young brothers. He "encouraged her to express the impressions made on her by music, reading novels, verses, and other such trifles, without noticing or realizing that these trifles were what interested him too.
For Bazarov, on the other hand, the love is more passionate, forceful. Bazarov shows the signs of an irrational love at his first meeting with Anna. While she is sitting calmly, "leaning back in her easy-chair," and "He, contrary to his habit, was talking a good deal, and obviously trying to interest her—again a surprise for Arkady. A life for a life. Take mine, give up thine, and that without regret or turning back.
Or else better have nothing. The various provincial settings—Maryino, Nikolskoe, Vassily Ivanovitch's unnamed homestead—are seen as backward and uneducated when compared with the cities, which are vibrant with new ideas and scholarship. As Bazarov notes to Arkady at one point, if they were to look at their fathers' country existence from a certain perspective, it could be seen as enjoyable, having a routine to keep busy: On a different occasion, Arkady, who likes the nature one finds in the country, challenges Bazarov: Nature's not a temple, but a workshop, and man's the workman in it.
Arkady cannot do this, however, and he eventually comes to prefer the country, moving into Maryino with his new wife and his father's family, where Arkady becomes "zealous in the management of the estate" and turns it into a prosperous affair. Irony A situation is ironic when its outcome is contrary to what the character and reader expects.
In Turgenev's novel this happens many times. For example, Vassily Ivanovitch describes the bitter irony of the generation gap when talking to his son and Arkady about a philosopher of whom they are enamored: However, when Arkady's son grows up, Arkady will no doubt realize, as Nikolai does, that aging and the decline of one's ideas is "a bitter pill" and that every new generation is ready to tell the old to "swallow your pill.
Bazarov is against love because there is no control over it, and it overpowers the senses that he holds dear and by which he rules his life.
It is ironic, therefore, that Bazarov is stricken blind with love for Anna, and admits to her, "I love you like a fool, like a madman.Fathers and Sons by Ivan Turgenev - Audiobook with Subtitles
The cruelest irony of the novel, however, is the death of Bazarov. The young nihilist who appreciates the hard sciences more than anything else goes to the village, "where they brought that peasant with typhus fever. Unfortunately, in the process, he makes a careless mistake and cuts himself, contracting the infection that soon kills him.
It is tragically ironic that Bazarov's quest for knowledge is the thing that kills him in the end. Point of View The novel is told by a third person omniscient, or all-knowing, narrator who has the power to go within any character's mind and display their thoughts. For example, when Bazarov and Pavel get in their first argument over their beliefs, Nikolai thinks to himself, "You are certainly a nihilist, I see that," although what he says aloud is "Still, you will allow me to apply to you on occasion.
However, there is a notable exception in the narration: Historical Context Fathers and Sons is tied to Russia's history, particularly to the period of social unrest and reform that began to come to a head with the rule of Alexander II. Following the Crimean Warduring which Alexander came to power inRussian society—and Alexander himself—was made painfully aware of Russia's backward place in the world.
These were old concerns that were reawakened with the loss of aboutmen and some of Russia's land. This war was not received well in society and as a result, Alexander, who had been taught by an artistic, romantic tutor, and who was sympathetic to liberal concerns, sought reform.
Pitting himself against the landowners who owned serfs, Alexander began to talk about abolishing serfdom. Says Victor Ripp, in his Turgenev's Russia: From "Notes of a Hunter" to "Fathers and Sons": In this time of uneasiness, Turgenev chose to set his book. As Ripp notes, "it is the spring ofand the emancipation of the serfs, with all its uncertain consequences, is only two years ahead. Nikolai Petrovitch, a more liberal landowner, has already freed his serfs before he is required to, although he is wary about giving his former slaves any control in any major business affairs.
Some, especially the older Russian nobility with much land to lose, decried the reforms, like Bazarov's mother.
HIS Study Questions On Fathers and Sons
She used to be a member of the landed gentry, but turned her land over to the care of her husband, a poor, retired army surgeon. She "used to groan, wave her handkerchief, and raise her eyebrows higher and higher with horror when her old husband began to discuss the impending government reforms. As the narrator notes of the young governor's official sent to a provincial town, he "was a young man, and at once a progressive and a despot, as often happens with Russians. The same was true about the behavior of the lower classes.
When given any power at all, they abused it, as Nikolai's farm manager does: As Ripp notes, "In its efforts to please all factions, the Editing Committee produced an immensely complicated document.
He drives around his district, giving long speeches that say the same thing over and over again, but as Turgenev's narrator notes, "to tell the truth, he does not give complete satisfaction either to the refined gentry … nor to the uncultivated gentry…. He is too soft-hearted for both sets. As Ripp notes, Turgenev is aware of all of this as he writes the book ina year after the act has been implemented: Under the leadership of Alexander II Russia embarks on a number of social reforms, including abolishing serfdom and improving communications, such as establishing more railroad lines.
Russia remains a poor and unstable country after the fall of the Soviet Union at the end of the twentieth century. In the wake of the brutal dictatorial regime that ruled "communist" Russia and other Soviet countries for much of the twentieth century, the plight of many Russians has worsened. Like those in other countries, many of Russia's youth adhere to a scientific materialism philosophy, questioning everything with a strict rationalism and not letting any "irrational" behavior overcome them.
In many civilized countries there is a resurgence in art, nature, and other humanistic pursuits, due in large part to humanity's increasing dependence upon technology. Although modern medicine is improving with the such developments as vaccines, the "germ theory" of disease, and improved sanitation in hospitals, doctors are largely powerless. When cholera sweeps across Europe and Russia, many are killed.
In most modernized countries, cholera and typhus, which are usually prevalent in poor, unsanitary areas, have been wiped out.
Epidemic typhus persists in countries that experience famine, crowded living conditions, and other areas where sanitation is an issue. Cholera, on the other hand, has been largely dormant, and has not seen a major outbreak for more than a decade. Critical Overview Inwhen Turgenev first gave the manuscript for Fathers and Sons to his editor Mikhail Nikiforovich Katkov, the Russkii vestnik Russian Her-ald editor was concerned about the potential backlash over the novel. Katkov had reason to be concerned.
As Edward Garnett notes in his Turgenev, "the stormy controversy that the novel immediately provoked was so bitter, deep, and lasting that the episode forms one of the most interesting chapters in literary history. It was with this second group that Turgenev had found favor with through the publication of some of his earlier works in Sovremennik Contemporary. However, the same critics who had praised Turgenev's earlier works now offered harsh criticism for Fathers and Sons as they had for Turgenev's previous novel, Nakanune.
One of the most vocal critics from The Contemporary was M. Antonovich, who remarked that Bazarov "is not a man, but some horrible being, simply a devil or, to express oneself more poetically, a foul fiend. Gertsen, notes that in the book, "gloomy, concentrated energy has spoken in this unfriendly attitude of the young generation to its mentors. Pisarev, another of the younger radicals, was the only critic from his political party who did not describe Bazarov as a "vicious caricature" of the radicals, as Leonard Schapiro notes in Turgenev: His Life and Times.
Instead, Pisarev writes to both radicals and liberals: Turgenev himself recounts what is now a famous anecdote from his life, when he returned to Petersburg in on the same day that young radicals—calling themselves "nihilists"—were setting fire to buildings: This problem was underscored by Turgenev's own conflicting views on the character. Although he stated in a March 30 letter to Fyodor Dostoyevsky that "during all the time of writing I have felt an involuntary attraction for him," he stated in a different letter on April 18 to A.
I don't know that myself, for I don't know if I love or hate him! Peter Henry notes that "it is a brilliant stroke of irony on Turgenev's part that Bazarov and Pavel Petrovich, so sharply contrasted in every way, are endowed with an essential identity as unsuccessful lovers.
Even the minor characters are deftly sketched in. Poquette Poquette holds a bachelor's degree in English and specializes in writing about literature. In the following essay, Poquette discusses the many views of women in Turgenev's novel. In Turgenev's Fathers and Sons, women play very important and influential roles in the plot. Anna Odintsov attracts Arkady and Bazarov, who are both trying to remain true to their nihilistic beliefs, which attempt to deny love—an irrational force.
This surrender to love shakes the very core of Bazarov's foundation. Eventually, he tries again at love, stealing a kiss from Fenitchka, which leads to the duel with Pavel. In the meantime, Katya wins over Arkady. Women are at the center of just about every major plot point in the book. But what does Turgenev think about women in general? The author makes several contradictory statements—through his characters—about how women are viewed, but in the end, he indicates that women are a necessary force, and a saving and nurturing influence on men.
At the beginning of Fathers and Sons Turgenev introduces four men, all of whom are strong Russian males. Arkady comes home from school a graduate, and brings his friend Bazarov, a nihilist with very powerful views. Almost at once, this younger generation of men conflicts with the older generation—Arkady's father; Nikolai, a liberal landowner; and Arkady's uncle Pavel, a retired military officer.
Pavel does not like Bazarov from the start, calling him an "unkempt creature" after his first meeting with the younger man. This tension escalates when the younger men start expressing their radical views. Arkady informs his father and uncle that nihilists regard "everything from the critical point of view," and in the conversations between the two generations over the next fortnight, the young men criticize many of the institutions that the older generation holds dear.
Bazarov—backed by Arkady—denounces all irrational pursuits including art, claiming, "a good chemist is twenty times as useful as any poet. However, just as this struggle culminates in the silly and ineffectual duel between Bazarov and Pavel, the men's manly debates are also ultimately ineffectual.
While these strong men argue about philosophy and art, they are being quietly conquered by women who, like Fenitchka, only seem meek and mild, as when Fenitchka brings in Pavel's cup of cocoa and "dropped her eyes" in the presence of the men.
In fact, through his male characters especially, Turgenev expresses many of the views of women that were prevalent at the time. One of the dominant views was that women were not very smart and could not hold their own against literate men. As Bazarov notes to Arkady about his own mother, "If a woman can keep up half-an-hour's conversation, it's always a hopeful sign. When Kukshin learns that Bazarov is interested in chemistry, she thinks they have something in common: That is my passion.
I've even invented a new sort of composition myself. She's worth educating and developing. You might make something fine out of her. Arkady remarks "what an exquisite woman" Anna is, while Bazarov says, somewhat condescendingly, "Yes … a female with brains.
Yes, and she's seen life too. Bazarov is afraid of Anna, both for the power she is beginning to hold over his heart and because he has very little power over her; he cannot manipulate her as he initially believes Katya can be manipulated. Hypocritically, Bazarov, who warms to the idea of manipulating women like Katya into an image that is pleasing to him, complains of the manipulative quality of women.
When Arkady previously asked his mentor, "Why are you unwilling to allow freethinking in women? Besides being looked at as inferior or manipulative, Turgenev's characters also view some women as independent.
In fact, before he is rebuffed by Anna, Bazarov agreed to some extent with a woman's right to advance her circumstances. As Bazarov notes to Arkady just prior to meeting Anna and prior to being rattled by her: Women of the Intelligentsia in Nineteenth-century Russia, the nihilists in general were very supportive of women's rights, and "devoted considerable attention to women's problems.
She's never, I'm persuaded, heard of embryology, and in these days—what can be done without that? It's a pity she's not yet advanced enough. In fact, Nikolai, Arkady's father, fell in love with a smart woman: The two symbolic weddings at the end of the novel do more than heal the rift between Arkady and Nikolai; they also indicate Turgenev's true view about the appropriate role for women—powerful matriarchs.
At the end of the novel, Fenitchka, who was meek and mild in the beginning, is "different. As the narrator notes, "They live in the greatest harmony together, and will live perhaps to attain complete happiness … perhaps love. In addition, Bazarov is also respectful toward the institution of marriage, something which he has never appreciated before. In his final conversation with Arkady, he is complementary about Katya's power: In the past, Bazarov would have viewed this power as dangerous, fearing that Katya might manipulate men in a bad way.
However in the end, Bazarov, and indeed Turgenev, conclude that this manipulation is a good thing: David Lowe In the following excerpt, Lowe traces elements of both comedy and tragedy in Turgenev's novel. Fet's letter is not extant, but we do have Turgenev's reply, and it reinforces the often expressed conviction that one ought not to pay too much attention to what writers have to say about their own works.
The other is contrast. No doubt there are few works in world literature that do not depend to some extent on parallels and contrasts for the building blocks that hold them together and give them coherence.