India–Pakistan relations - Wikipedia
Meeting Between India, Pakistan Foreign Ministers Called Off. A day after the Shelling Continues Across India, Pakistan Border in Kashmir. Fighting and. “Milestones in the History of U.S. Foreign Relations” has been retired and is no The war between India and Pakistan was the second conflict between the Pakistani and Indian forces clashed over disputed territory along the border. The India–Pakistan Border, known locally as the International Border (IB), is an international It is called a working boundary because on one side is an internationally recognised land . Foreign relations of India · Foreign relations of Pakistan.
He hands over control of his defence, communications and foreign affairs to the Indian government. Both sides agree that the instrument of accession signed by Maharaja Hari Singh be ratified by a referendum, to be held after hostilities have ceased. Historians on either side of the dispute remain undecided as to whether the Maharaja signed the document after Indian troops had entered Kashmir i.
Fighting continues through the second half ofwith the regular Pakistani army called upon to protect Pakistan's borders. The war officially ends on January 1,when the United Nations arranges a ceasefire, with an established ceasefire line, a UN peacekeeping force and a recommendation that the referendum on the accession of Kashmir to India be held as agreed earlier. That referendum has yet to be held. Pakistan controls roughly one-third of the state, referring to it as Azad free Jammu and Kashmir.
A larger area, including the former kingdoms of Hunza and Nagar, is controlled directly by the central Pakistani government. The Indian eastern side of the ceasefire line is referred to as Jammu and Kashmir.
Both countries refer to the other side of the ceasefire line as "occupied" territory. India, from the point of the ratification and constitution, begins to refer to Jammu and Kashmir as an integral part of the Indian union. The specific contents of those talks have not yet been declassified, but no agreement was reached.
In the talks, "Pakistan signified willingness to consider approaches other than a plebiscite and India recognised that the status of Kashmir was in dispute and territorial adjustments might be necessary," according to a declassified US state department memo dated January 27, The conflict begins after a clash between border patrols in April in the Rann of Kutch in the Indian state of Gujaratbut escalates on August 5, when between 26, and 33, Pakistani soldiers cross the ceasefire line dressed as Kashmiri locals, crossing into Indian-administered Kashmir.
The largest engagement of the war takes place in the Sialkot sector, where between and tanks square off in an inconclusive battle. By September 22, both sides agree to a UN mandated ceasefire, ending the war that had by that point reached a stalemate, with both sides holding some of the other's territory. The conflict begins when the central Pakistani government in West Pakistan, led by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, refuses to allow Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, a Bengali whose party won the majority of seats in the parliamentary elections, to assume the premiership.
A Pakistani military crackdown on Dhaka begins in March, but India becomes involved in the conflict in December, after the Pakistani air force launches a pre-emptive strike on airfields in India's northwest. India then launches a coordinated land, air and sea assault on East Pakistan.
The Pakistani army surrenders at Dhaka, and its army of more than 90, become prisoners of war. Hostilities lasted 13 days, making this one of the shortest wars in modern history.India Pakistan Relations
But various Afghan factions fought one another and their external supporters, including the Soviet Union, Iran, Pakistan and others disagreed on which should be in power. Continued rival proxy support led to the civil warin which Pakistan supported in the Talibanseeking to secure its interests in Afghanistan and providing strategic support, while India and Afghanistan's other neighbors backed the Northern Alliance.
After the Taliban defeated the Northern Alliance in much of Afghanistan in the Afghan Civil Warthe Taliban regime continued to be supported by Pakistan — one of the three countries to do so — before the 11 September attacks.
India firmly opposed the Taliban and criticized Pakistan for supporting it. India established its links with the Northern Alliance as India officially recognized their government, with the United Nations.
India's relations with AfghanistanPakistan's neighbor, and its increasing presence there has irked Pakistan. The Indian embassy bombing in Kabul was a suicide bomb terror attack on the Indian embassy in KabulAfghanistan on 7 July at 8: Bush confronted Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani with evidence and warned him that in the case of another such attack he would have to take "serious action". Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir According to some reports published by the Council of Foreign Relationsthe Pakistan military and the ISI have provided covert support to terrorist groups active in Kashmirincluding the al-Qaeda affiliate Jaish-e-Mohammed.
Many Kashmiri militant groups also maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmirwhich is cited as further proof by the Indian government. Author Gordon Thomas stated that Pakistan "still sponsored terrorist groups in the state of Kashmir, funding, training and arming them in their war on attrition against India. A car bomb exploded near the Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly on 1 Octoberkilling 27 people on an attack that was blamed on Kashmiri separatists.
India–Pakistan border - Wikipedia
It was one of the most prominent attacks against India apart from on the Indian Parliament in December The dead bodies of the terrorists and the data recovered from them revealed that Pakistan was solely responsible for the activity.
On 13 Julyarmed men believed to be a part of the Lashkar-e-Toiba threw hand grenades at the Qasim Nagar market in Srinagar and then fired on civilians standing nearby killing twenty-seven and injuring many more. Abdul Ghani Lone, a prominent All Party Hurriyat Conference leader, was assassinated by an unidentified gunmen during a memorial rally in Srinagar. The assassination resulted in wide-scale demonstrations against the Indian occupied-forces for failing to provide enough security cover for Mr.
A car bomb exploded near an armoured Indian Army vehicle in the famous Church Lane area in Srinagar killing four Indian Army personnel, one civilian and the suicide bomber. Terrorist group Hizbul Mujahideenclaimed responsibility for the attack. A terrorist attack on 29 July at Srinigar 's city centre, Budshah Chowk, killed two and left more than 17 people injured.
Most of those injured were media journalists. No Terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attack. A terrorist attack by four heavily armed terrorists on 18 Septembernear the town of Uri in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, killed 18 and left more than 20 people injured.
It was reported as "the deadliest attack on security forces in Kashmir in two decades". India blamed Pakistan for carrying out the attacks, an allegation which Pakistan strongly denied and one that brought both nations to the brink of a nuclear confrontation in — However, international peace efforts ensured the cooling of tensions between the two nuclear-capable nations. The plane was hijacked on 24 December approximately one hour after take off and was taken to Amritsar airport and then to Lahore in Pakistan.
After refueling the plane took off for Dubai and then finally landed in KandaharAfghanistan. Under intense media pressure, New Delhi complied with the hijackers' demand and freed Maulana Masood Azhar from its captivity in return for the freedom of the Indian passengers on the flight. The decision, however, cost New Delhi dearly. Maulana, who is believed to be hiding in Karachilater became the leader of Jaish-e-Mohammedan organisation which has carried out several terrorist acts against Indian security forces in Kashmir.
The Fort houses an Indian military unit and a high-security interrogation cell used both by the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Indian Army. The terrorists successfully breached the security cover around the Red Fort and opened fire at the Indian military personnel on duty killing two of them on spot. The attack was significant because it was carried out just two days after the declaration of the cease-fire between India and Pakistan.
The attack was carried out on 25 Septemberjust few days after state elections were held in Jammu and Kashmir. Two identical letters found on both the terrorists claimed that the attack was done in retaliation for the deaths of thousands of Muslims during the Gujarat riots.
Though no terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attacks, Mumbai Police and RAW suspected Lashkar-e-Toiba 's hand in the twin blasts. Before the terrorists could reach the main disputed sitethey were shot down by Indian security forces.
One Hindu worshipper and two policemen were injured during the incident.
Timeline: India-Pakistan relations | News | Al Jazeera
However, a border conflict between India and China ended with a decisive Chinese victory, which motivated the United States and the United Kingdom to provide military supplies to the Indian Army. After the clash with China, India also turned to the Soviet Union for assistance, which placed some strains on U.
However, the United States also provided India with considerable development assistance throughout the s and s. After Pakistani troops invaded Kashmir, India moved quickly to internationalize the regional dispute.
Timeline: India-Pakistan relations
The Security Council passed Resolution on September 20 calling for an end to the fighting and negotiations on the settlement of the Kashmir problem, and the United States and the United Kingdom supported the UN decision by cutting off arms supplies to both belligerents.
This ban affected both belligerents, but Pakistan felt the effects more keenly since it had a much weaker military in comparison to India.
The UN resolution and the halting of arms sales had an immediate impact. India accepted the ceasefire on September 21 and Pakistan on September