Cleaner fish and grouper symbiotic relationship activities

Cleaner fish - Wikipedia

Daily Activities · Help Wildlife Home > Captain's Blog > Symbiotic Relationships While a stingray is resting on the bottom, a cleaner wrasse will use that external parasites and old skin from eels, groupers and other fish. CLEANING SYMBIOSIS. The InvaSIon of the turned to lose itself in the activity of the school. . FOUR CLEANING RELATIONSHIPS are depicted in this draw· ing by Rudolf grouper (Epinephelus striatus) ; at bottom, a Spanish hogfish ( Bodi. anus rufus) cleaning wrasse (purple {ish in center} of undetermined species. papers that report on symbiosis on coral reefs, especially in relation to fishes: Ormond . too large to be prey for the cleaning goby (J.E. Randall). Two species of groupers, the drab Redmouth Grouper, Aethaloperca rogaa, and the blue-spotted Coral Collette, B.B. & Talbot, F.H. () Activity patterns of coral fishes with.

Discussion This study examined the amount of time cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus Valenciennes, spent cleaning grouper species in the Maldives and found that grouper are an important client.

Grouper were clients Habitat and depth did not affect overall cleaning rates or cleaning rates when grouper were clients at our study sites. The cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus Valenciennes, spent Overall cleaning rates for grouper was 5. Of those fish cleaned, A Labroides dimidiatus cleaning rate mean observations per one minute period, maximum of 7 fish was observed inspecting or cleaning a client among three reef slope habitat types.

In contrast, Sluka examined six grouper species and found cleaner wrasse L. Grouper also feature as more prominent clients in several studies conducted in the Caribbean region. One tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris Valenciennes, was observed cleaning in one event for 45 minutes. Sluka and Sullivan found that coney Cephalopholis fulva Linnaeus, and Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus Bloch, spent 7.

In contrast, Potts did not record any grouper among the top ten most cleaned client species; in several of his experiments, grouper were These same factors are also an important influence on grouper cleaning ecology.

Sluka examined the activity patterns of six grouper species. There were significant differences in the amount of time spent cleaning among species. Sluka and Sullivan showed inter and intra-specific variability in cleaning rates between coney Cephalopholis fulva Linnaeus, and Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus Bloch, Differences in cleaning rate may be most significantly related to size differences within and among grouper species. Size has been shown to be related to cleaning rate for many client species.

Grutter showed that cleaner wrasse L. Larger client species are also found more often near cleaning stations than smaller species Poulin Smaller cm TL graysby C. However, Sluka found no correlative evidence between cleanign rates and fish size either within or among species. Given the size range of grouper available for study maximum TL 20 cm and the importance of cleaning stations to grouper distribution, this subfamily may be an excellent choice for examining this question further.

For example, graysby C. Amongst studies where data is available for grouper, there appears to be cleaner-client preferences. Wicksten ; examined how often five cleaning organisms three fish and two shrimp cleaned grouper. The percentages differed between the two studies, but gobies Elacatinus sp. Whiteman and Cote also showed differences in the percent of visits grouper made to cleaning stations between two goby species.

Data is lacking to make firm conclusions, but it suggests that groupers have preferences for certain cleaning organisms. Whether this is of a general nature i. Evidence supporting the conclusion that the grouper-cleaner relationship is species-specific comes from a feeding experiment where juvenile bluehead wrasse Thalassoma bifasciatum which does not clean as an adult, and cleaner gobies where introduced into tanks containing various species of grouper.

No grouper species ate the gobies, while red hind E. No inter-habitat differences in cleaning behavior were found in this study.

However, habitats examined were all reef slopes with differing geo-morphological and biological features and may not have exhibited enough differences to influence cleaner behavior.

Grouper assemblages are significantly different among these habitats Sluka,but these differences do not result in differing cleaning rates. Other studies which have examined coral reef habitats with more significant differences e. Grouper distribution, density, and species diversity generally varies among habitats at several spatial scales Sluka et al.

In an experimental study in the Bahamas, Sluka et al. Removal of the cleaning station resulted in groupers leaving the reef more often than prior to the removal, presumably to seek other cleaning opportunities. However, among coral reefs, grouper density was not correlated to cleaning station or cleaner density Sluka et al. Grutter showed a similar result where the removal of cleaner fish did not result in a change in grouper abundance.

But see Grutter et al. Grutter's study did not consider possible movement off the reef to seek other cleaning opportunities. A large, mobile parrotfish, the longnose parrotfish Hipposcarus harid Forsskal, was recently shown to move to other cleaner stations in response to a lack of cleaning opportunity Bshary and Schaeffer, It appears that locally, cleaning stations are a significant aspect of grouper habitat.

But the grouper's ability to move and potentially find other cleaning opportunities seems to obscure any effect of cleaning station or cleaner density on large-scale grouper abundance patterns.

Future research could benefit by using similar approach as previous studies conducted on smaller, less mobile client fish to determine the universality of those conclusions. Especially examining the effect of mobility and size within and among grouper species on cleaner-client relationship. Numerous questions remain as to the ecological significance of cleaners or cleaning stations to grouper ecology as well as the significance of groupers to cleaners.

It is clear that studies which have specifically focused on grouper-cleaner relationships have shown the importance of this interaction to both cleaner and client. Cleaning stations should be considered an important part of grouper habitat.

Acknowledgements Thanks to Mr. Yoosuf Nishar and Mr. Abudullah Hakeem, who assisted in all aspects of the field work.

Symbiotic Relationships General Lesson Plan with Relationship Diagram Activity

Ahmed Shakeel and Ms. Special thanks to A. Schmitt for comments which significantly improved the manuscript. Submarine topography of Maldivian atolls suggests a sea level of metres below present at the last glacial maximum.

Coral Reefs 17, Reef fish resources survey in the Maldives, Phase II. Patterns of cleaner wrasse density among three regions of the Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress Series Patterns of local distribution of Labroides dimidiatus in French Polynesian Atolls. Environmental Biology of Fishes 63, Asymmetric cheating opportunities and partner control in a cleaner fish mutualism.

Animal Behaviour 63, Experimental evidence that partner choice is a driving force in the payoff distribution among cooperators or mutualists: Ecology Letters 5, Choosy reef fish select cleaner fish that provide high-quality service. What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson? Students must have a general knowledge of ecosystems, and must be familiar with the idea that organisms interact with each other when they live in the same habitat.

What are the guiding questions for this lesson? How can symbiotic relationships among organisms in an ecosystem influence populations?

Why are interactions between organisms important? What would an ecosystem with no interactions be like? What are some examples of ways that humans interact with their environment, and what relationships would you use to label those interactions? How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?

Have students define the 5 symbiotic relationships Mutualism, Commensalism, Parasitism, Predation, and competition for homework prior to class. Students can write definitions in their notebooks or fill out a vocabulary sheet of your choice.

Collect or check homework at the beginning of class. Show the 5-minute YouTube video Symbiosis: Mutualism, Commensalism, and Parasitism by Untamed Science. Have the video loaded and ready to start at the beginning of class. If possible, you can check notebooks during the video. Start this video at 0: After having definitions copied in notebooks and watching the video, which also goes over the terms, students should understand all of the definitions.

At this point, we will do a formative assessment to make sure students have an understanding of the definitions and clear up any misconceptions.

Shrimps and Cleaners - Reef Life of the Andaman - Part 21

Conduct the vocabulary quiz in the attached PowerPoint. Clear up any misconceptions. If students are getting the same questions wrong, use this as an opportunity to quickly reteach by explaining the definition with examples.

Plickers is a free formative assessment tool that can be used to quickly and easily assess the knowledge of the class through simple quizzes that allow for full class participation and immediate analysis. Plicker cards are easy to make, but must be printed for each student prior to class.

This tool is a good way to assess student responses on the vocabulary quiz. The teaching phase should take between 8 and 15 minutes, depending on how well the students have prepared before class.

What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance? Show students five YouTube videos that demonstrate symbiotic relationships. After each video, have the students identify the relationship demonstrated in the video and discuss with a partner the reasons that the relationship in the video fits the relationship that they chose.

Then facilitate class discussion about what the students came up with for each video and clear up any misconceptions or confusion. Please preload all videos before the lesson or use a service such as ViewPure to prevent students from seeing advertisements.

Mutualism You can explain during this video that cleaner fish are removing parasites for the goliath grouper, but leave the rest to the student discussion. Competition " Lion vs Hyenas: The lions and the hyenas are in competition here, but you can leave the answer for the students to decide during their discussion. Most of them will recognize what is going on right away, while some others may not.

Commensalism " Strawberry Poison Dart Frog " by National Geographic Ask, "What is the relationship between the strawberry poison dart frog and the bromeliad? Then ask, "What is the relationship between the coati and the strawberry poison dart frog tadpole? This is a great question to deepen knowledge because most students will try to fit the relationship into one of the categories they already know, which is not always the best approach in science.

Let students discuss what they think before you explain that predation is defined ecologically as the consumptive interaction between a predator species and a prey species that usually results in the death of the prey.

The Symbiotic Relationship Between Gobies And Pistol Shrimp

The guided practice section could last between minutes, depending on how much you choose to discuss each example with the students and how many guiding questions you choose to integrate. If you are doing this as a two-day lesson, you could make this portion last longer by asking questions and facilitating discussion until the class period is over. What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?