Crocodile and the Plover Bird – SmallScience
Like tigers and wolves, a fully grown alligator is nothing to trust your life and limb to Then again I am consciously in a relationship with a narcissist, so one might .. the same sort of emotional connections that mammals and birds can achieve . Wonderful" -- Heather Blackham Carousel "I found myself moved to tears by the implications of Croc and Bird's relationship: how family is what. Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live .. Crocodiles mostly eat fish, amphibians, crustaceans, molluscs, birds, reptiles, and mammals, and Herodotus claimed that Nile crocodiles had a symbiotic relationship with certain birds, such as the Egyptian plover, which enter the.
Being ectothermic cold-blooded predators, they have a very slow metabolismso they can survive long periods without food. Despite their appearance of being slow, crocodiles have a very fast strike and are top predators in their environment, and various species have been observed attacking and killing other predators such as sharks and big cats.
They can easily digest bones, hooves and horns. The BBC TV  reported that a Nile crocodile that has lurked a long time underwater to catch prey builds up a large oxygen debt.
When it has caught and eaten that prey, it closes its right aortic arch and uses its left aortic arch to flush blood loaded with carbon dioxide from its muscles directly to its stomach; the resulting excess acidity in its blood supply makes it much easier for the stomach lining to secrete more stomach acid to quickly dissolve bulks of swallowed prey flesh and bone.
Many large crocodilians swallow stones called gastroliths or stomach stoneswhich may act as ballast to balance their bodies or assist in crushing food,  similar to grit ingested by birds. Herodotus claimed that Nile crocodiles had a symbiotic relationship with certain birds, such as the Egyptian ploverwhich enter the crocodile's mouth and pick leeches feeding on the crocodile's blood; with no evidence of this interaction actually occurring in any crocodile species, it is most likely mythical or allegorical fiction.
Since they feed by grabbing and holding onto their prey, they have evolved sharp teeth for piercing and holding onto flesh, and powerful muscles to close the jaws and hold them shut. The teeth are not well-suited to tearing flesh off of large prey items as are the dentition and claws of many mammalian carnivores, the hooked bills and talons of raptorial birdsor the serrated teeth of sharks.
However, this is an advantage rather than a disadvantage to the crocodile since the properties of the teeth allow it to hold onto prey with the least possibility of the prey animal escaping. Cutting teeth, combined with the exceptionally high bite forcewould pass through flesh easily enough to leave an escape opportunity for prey.
The jaws can bite down with immense force, by far the strongest bite of any animal. Ericksonalso shed light on the larger, extinct species of crocodilians. Since crocodile anatomy has changed only slightly over the last 80 million years, current data on modern crocodilians can be used to estimate the bite force of extinct species. The space for the jaw muscle in the skull is very large, which is easily visible from the outside as a bulge at each side. The muscle is so stiff, it is almost as hard as bone to touch, as if it were the continuum of the skull.
Another trait is that most of the muscle in a crocodile's jaw is arranged for clamping down. Despite the strong muscles to close the jaw, crocodiles have extremely small and weak muscles to open the jaw. Crocodiles can thus be subdued for study or transport by taping their jaws or holding their jaws shut with large rubber bands cut from automobile inner tubes.
Locomotion A crocodile, in a farm, gaping to thermoregulate Crocodiles can move quickly over short distances, even out of water. Some species can gallop, including Cuban crocodiles, Johnston's crocodiles, New Guinea crocodiles, African dwarf crocodilesand even small Nile crocodiles. The fastest means by which most species can move is a "belly run", in which the body moves in a snake-like sinusoidal fashion, limbs splayed out to either side paddling away frantically while the tail whips to and fro.
When a crocodile walks quickly, it holds its legs in a straighter and more upright position under its body, which is called the "high walk". The most common method is to measure lamellar growth rings in bones and teeth—each ring corresponds to a change in growth rate which typically occurs once a year between dry and wet seasons. The oldest crocodiles appear to be the largest species. A male crocodile lived to an estimated age of — years in a Russian zoo in Yekaterinburg. Named Henry, the crocodile is said to have lived in Botswana along the Okavango Riveraccording to centre director Martin Rodrigues.
Crocodiles are the most social of reptiles. Even though they do not form social groups, many species congregate in certain sections of riverstolerating each other at times of feeding and basking. Most species are not highly territorial, with the exception of the saltwater crocodile, which is a highly territorial and aggressive species. A mature male will not tolerate any other males at any time of the year. Most other species are more flexible. There is a certain form of hierarchy in crocodiles: A good example of the hierarchy in crocodiles would be the case of the Nile crocodile.
This species clearly displays all of these behaviours. Studies in this area are not thorough, however, and many species are yet to be studied in greater detail.
However, males of all species are aggressive towards each other during mating season, to gain access to females. Crocodiles are also the most vocal of all reptiles, producing a wide variety of sounds during various situations and conditions, depending on species, age, size and sex.
Croc and Bird | Scottish Book Trust
Depending on the context, some species can communicate over 20 different messages through vocalizations alone. Therefore most conspecific vocalization is made during the breeding seasonwith the exception being year-round territorial behaviour in some species and quarrels during feeding.
Crocodiles also produce different distress calls and in aggressive displays to their own kind and other animals; notably other predators during interspecific predatory confrontations over carcasses and terrestrial kills. The female then gathers the hatchlings in her mouth and transports them to the water, where they remain in a group for several months, protected by the female  Distress call: In Duurzaamheid in de Boardroom I refer to the DSM the global science-based company active in health, nutrition and materials and Niaga partnership.
But the entrepreneurs faced some obstacles: We believed in them, so we took the plunge.Birds Helping Rhino
Of course it was a carefully defined, separate and distinctive growth bubble with its own identity within the DSM infrastructure. The power of partnership The interviews confirmed my view that SEEs and large companies seek partnerships in which they can combine their unique strengths. The figure next to this article summarises this. In order for such a partnership to be successful a number of conditions should be discussed and agreed.
I believe that both parties should have shared values. Moreover there must be agreement on a practical level too. What are the actual objectivesof the partnership?
The interviews learned us that the parties involved have to develop mutual trust which helps to accept the other and allows them the freedom for their unique contribution. Despite common values and objectives, there will always be differences between the two parties, leaving them to struggle within the partnership and putting pressure on mutual acceptance.
The learning capacity of both partners builds the foundations for reflection a much-underestimated quality, especially in times of pressure and accordingly the adjustment and recalibration of objectives. How do we adjust so that each party can regain its strength and take the next steps? The partnership is proof of a relationship established by two very different enterprises.
Crocodile and the Plover Bird
Together they experiment, develop, learn, fail and still go on. To me, such partnerships go beyond a transactional relationship that might spring up between a large company and an SEE.
Is that relationship any different to that of Verkade or Always? After all, the supermarket is a sales channel for those companies too. What do you think? Is that another research question? Ideally, a partnership between an SEE and a large company is a symbiotic relationship. It is while swallowing that the bits of flesh get stuck in their teeth. You will find them swimming just like this beneath the surface of water with their eyes and nostrils just above. Often you will find them lazing around in the sun with their mouth wide open.
They have powerful jaw muscles and can keep their mouth open for a long time. Let us look at the Plover Bird closely. She lives in pairs or in small groups near water bodies, just like our crocodile does. She flies in groups. When a pair lands after the flight, they greet each other by raising their wings in a way that shows the black and white marks on them.
They greet each other regularly! They get into its mouth boldly, eat the food and fly away. Even when a Plover Bird is not around, his teeth still need to be cleaned!