prejudice, stereotypes, or stereotyping in the abstract (data aggregated define prejudice and stereotypes. dynamics of group relations in economic- and. Define and distinguish among prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination Thus, certain types of education, contact, interactions, and building relationships with. Prejudice is an affective feeling towards a person or group member based solely on that Gordon Allport defined prejudice as a "feeling, favorable or unfavorable , . in line with the perceived stereotype (for example, that the outgroup is violent) . analysis of the relationship between psychological traits and prejudice.
Because of these new conceptions of bias, there have also been methodological adaptations in the study of prejudice and stereotyping that move beyond the conscious attitudes and behaviors of individuals to measure their implicit prejudice and stereotypes as well.
Stereotypes and prejudice
This article gives a quick tour through the social psychological study of prejudice and stereotyping to inform the reader about its theoretical background, measurement, and interventions aimed to reduce prejudice. General Overviews There are several books and chapters that offer a broad view of the social psychological research on prejudice and stereotyping.Stereotypes, Prejudice & Discrimination
There are two texts that are excellent for undergraduates. First, Whitley and Kite covers the general field of research on stereotyping and prejudice, providing an excellent primer for theory and research on the causes and consequences of prejudice and stereotyping.
Second, Stangor is a collection of key social psychological readings on stereotypes and prejudice. The key readings text is especially useful, as it can be assigned in sections for a general class or used in its entirety for a class specifically on prejudice. Beyond the introductory text and primer for key readings, though potentially unsuitable for undergraduate use, there are three chapters from the Handbook of Social Psychology that are useful for researchers who want to get an understanding of the progression of research and focus of current theory and research.
Although there is some overlap in the content of the three handbook chapters, each chapter makes a notably unique contribution that warrants their inclusion. Fiske provides a history and thorough review of influential perspectives on prejudice and stereotyping. Expanding on FiskeYzerbyt and Demoulin provides an additional in-depth perspective on theories of how groups are created and sustained.
Dovidio and Gaertner focuses on the bases of group-based biases and provides a thorough consideration of theory and research on stereotype change and prejudice reduction. Finally, in addition to the aforementioned chapters, Dovidio, et al. Realistic threats Intergroup anxiety Negative stereotypes Realistic threats are tangible, such as competition for a natural resource or a threat to income. Symbolic threats arise from a perceived difference in cultural values between groups or a perceived imbalance of power for example, an ingroup perceiving an outgroup's religion as incompatible with theirs.
Intergroup anxiety is a feeling of uneasiness experienced in the presence of an outgroup or outgroup member, which constitutes a threat because interactions with other groups cause negative feelings e. Negative stereotypes are similarly threats, in that individuals anticipate negative behaviour from outgroup members in line with the perceived stereotype for example, that the outgroup is violent.
Often these stereotypes are associated with emotions such as fear and anger. ITT differs from other threat theories by including intergroup anxiety and negative stereotypes as threat types.
Additionally, social dominance theory states that society can be viewed as group-based hierarchies. In competition for scarce resources such as housing or employment, dominant groups create prejudiced "legitimizing myths" to provide moral and intellectual justification for their dominant position over other groups and validate their claim over the limited resources.
Prejudice can be a central contributing factor to depression.
Paul Bloom argues that while prejudice can be irrational and have terrible consequences, it is natural and often quite rational. This is because prejudices are based on the human tendency to categorise objects and people based on prior experience.
This means people make predictions about things in a category based on prior experience with that category, with the resulting predictions usually being accurate though not always. Bloom argues that this process of categorisation and prediction is necessary for survival and normal interaction, quoting William Hazlitt, who stated "Without the aid of prejudice and custom, I should not be able to find my way my across the room; nor know how to conduct myself in any circumstances, nor what to feel in any relation of life".
Prejudice and Stereotyping - Psychology - Oxford Bibliographies
It is argued that since prejudice is defined as a negative affect towards members of a group, there are many groups against whom prejudice is acceptable such as rapists, men who abandon their families, pedophiles, neo-Nazis, drink-drivers, queue jumpers, murderers etc. It has been suggested that researchers have focused too much on an evaluative approach to prejudice, rather than a descriptive approach, which looks at the actual psychological mechanisms behind prejudiced attitudes.
It is argued that this limits research to targets of prejudice to groups deemed to be receiving unjust treatment, while groups researchers deem treated justly or deservedly of prejudice are overlooked.
As a result, the scope of prejudice has begun to expand in research, allowing a more accurate analysis of the relationship between psychological traits and prejudice.
A few commonplace examples of prejudice are those based on someone's race, gender, nationality, social status, sexual orientation, or religious affiliation, and controversies may arise from any given topic. Sexism Sexism, also called gender discrimination, is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sexism can affect either gender, but it is particularly documented as affecting women and girls. Throughout history, women have been thought of as being subordinate to men, often being ignored in areas like the academia or belittled altogether.
Traditionally, men were thought of as being more capable than women, mentally and physically. Nationalism Nationalism is a sentiment based on common cultural characteristics that binds a population and often produces a policy of national independence or separatism. Classism Classism is defined by dictionary. Some argue that economic inequality is an unavoidable aspect of society, so there will always be a ruling class.
Therefore, one may believe the existence of social classes is a natural feature of society. According to anthropological evidence, for the majority of the time the human species has been in existence, humans have lived in a manner in which the land and resources were not privately owned.
Overall, society has neither come to a consensus over the necessity of the class system, nor been able to deal with the hostility and prejudice that occurs because of the class system. Sexual discrimination and Homophobia One's sexual orientation is the "direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes".
Prejudice - Wikipedia
They may experience hatred from others because of their sexual preferences; a term for such intense hatred based upon one's sexual orientation is homophobia. Due to what social psychologists call the vividness effect, a tendency to notice only certain distinctive characteristics, the majority population tends to draw conclusions like gays flaunt their sexuality. Research and questionnaires are formulated to fit the majority; i. This discussion of whether heterosexuals are the privileged group and whether homosexuals are a minimized group is controversial.
Research shows that discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is a powerful feature of many labor markets.
Though racism has been a prominent topic in history, there is still debate over whether race actually exists,[ citation needed ] making the discussion of race a controversial topic.