Mao Zedong () was one of the historic figures of the twentieth century. many responsibilities over to other leaders (Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping, etc.). When Mao was alive, Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, or the Gang of Four . In August Hoxha sent a 10,–word letter to Mao Zedong that .. They would stand no chance to win if they did not change over to new ways. revolution and established the PRC, Deng Xiaoping, the 'core' of the 'second . Mao Zedong: The Great Helmsman, the Saviour of the Chinese People, the conducive to experimentation, unorthodox ways of looking at things, the .. relationship between the new emperor and the CCP's collective leadership occurred.
He participated in the historic emergency session on 7 August in which, by Soviet instruction, the Party dismissed its founder Chen Duxiuand Qu Qiubai became the secretary general. In Wuhan, Deng first established contact with Mao Zedong, who was then little valued by militant pro-Soviet leaders of the party.
Between andDeng lived in Shanghai, where he helped organize protests that would be harshly persecuted by the Kuomintang authorities. The death of many Communist militants in those years led to a decrease in the number of members of the Communist Party, which enabled Deng to quickly move up the ranks.
Military campaign in Guangxi[ edit ] Beginning inhe participated in the struggle against the Kuomintang in Guangxi. The superiority of the forces of Chiang Kai-shek caused a huge number of casualties in the Communist ranks. The confrontational strategy of the party leadership was a failure that killed many militants. The response to this defeat catalyzed one of the most confusing episodes in the biography of Deng: His official biography states that Deng had been charged by his superiors with deserting from the battle zone before fleeing to Shanghai, where there were leaders of the underground Communist Party.
Although he was not punished in Shanghai, this episode in his biography remains unclear and would be used against him to question his devotion to the Communist Party during the Cultural Revolution era.
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April Learn how and when to remove this template message After returning to Shanghai, Deng discovered that his wife and daughter had died during childbirth. In addition, he discovered that many of his former comrades had died as a result of the Kuomintang's crackdown against the Communists. The campaigns against the Communists in the cities represented a setback for the party and in particular to the Comintern Soviet advisers, who saw the mobilization of the urban proletariat as the force for the advancement of communism.
Contrary to the urban vision of the revolution, based on the Soviet experience, the Communist leader Mao Zedong saw the rural peasants as the revolutionary force in China.
In a mountainous area of Jiangxi province, where Mao went to establish a communist system, there developed the embryo of a future state of China under communism, which adopted the official name of the Chinese Soviet Republic, but was better known as the " Jiangxi Soviet ". In one of the most important cities in the Soviet zone, RuijinDeng took over as secretary of the Party Committee in the summer of In the winter ofDeng went on to play the same position in the nearby district of Huichang.
In he became director of the propaganda department of the Provincial Party Committee in Jiangxi. It was then that he married a young woman he had met in Shanghai named Jin Weiying.
The successes of the Soviet in Jiangxi made the party leaders decide to move to Jiangxi from Shanghai. The confrontation among Mao, the party leaders, and their Soviet advisers was increasingly tense and the struggle for power between the two factions led to the removal of Deng, who favored the ideas of Mao, from his position in the propaganda department. Despite the strife within the party, the Jiangxi Soviet became the first successful experiment of communist rule in rural China.
It even issued stamps and paper money under the letterhead of the Soviet Republic of China, and the army of Chiang Kai-shek finally decided to attack the communist area.
The Long March[ edit ] Main article: Thus began the epic movement that would mark a turning point in the development of Chinese communism. The evacuation was difficult because the Army of the Republic had taken positions in all areas occupied by the Communists.
Advancing through remote and mountainous terrain, somemen managed to escape Jiangxi, starting a long strategic retreat through the interior of China, which ended one year later when between 8, and 9, survivors reached the northern province of Shaanxi. The pro-Soviet Communist Party of China had ended and a new rural-inspired party emerged under the leadership of Mao. Deng had once again become a leading figure in the party when the north ended up winning the civil war against the Kuomintang.
The confrontation between the two parties was temporarily interrupted, however, by the Japanese invasion, forcing the Kuomintang to form an alliance for the second time with the Communists to defend the nation against external aggression.Lee Kuan Yew talks about China and Deng
During the invasion, Deng remained in the area controlled by the Communists in the north, where he assumed the role of deputy political director of the three divisions of the restructured Communist army. From September until Januaryhe lived in Buddhist monasteries and temples in the Wutai Mountains.
His reliance on the peasantry a major departure from prevailing Soviet doctrine and dependence on guerrilla warfare in the revolution were essential to the Communist triumph in China. Following the establishment of the PRC People's Republic of China inMao was responsible for many of the political initiatives that transformed the face of China.
These included land reform, the collectivization of agriculture, and the spread of medical services. In particular, this leader of the revolution remained alert to what he saw to be new forms of oppression and sensitive to the interests of the oppressed. In he advocated a self-reliant "Great Leap Forward" campaign in rural development.
During the early s, Mao continued his restless challenge of what he perceived as new forms of domination in his words, "revisionism," or "capitalist restoration".
In foreign policy he led China's divorce from the Soviet Union. Domestically, he became increasingly wary of his subordinates' approach to development, fearing that it was fostering deep social and political inequalities. When Liu, Deng, and others seemed to be ignoring his call to "never forget class struggle," Mao in initiated the "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution," exploiting discontent among some students the "Red Guards" and others.
The Cultural Revolution was successful in removing many who opposed his policies but led to serious disorder, forcing Mao to call in the military to restore order in But Mao came to have doubts about Lin and soon challenged him politically. In Lin was killed in a plane crash while fleeing China after an alleged assassination attempt on Mao. Until his death, a failing Mao refereed a struggle between those who benefited from the Cultural Revolution and defended its policies, and rehabilitated veterans who believed that the Cultural Revolution had done China serious harm.
It seemed for a while that the veterans, led by Deng Xiaoping, had won the day. But the radicals, either by manipulating Mao or by appealing to his basic instincts, regained momentum after Zhou Enlai's death in January Mao chose the more centrist Hua Guofeng to carry on his vision.
His leadership, especially the Cultural Revolution initiative, has been hotly debated.
Deng Xiaoping - Wikipedia
In June the Party Central Committee approved a resolution that criticized Mao's rule afterbut affirmed his place as a great leader and ideologist of the Chinese Communist revolution. From Focus on Asian Studies, Vol.
The Asia Society, Zhou Enlai Zhou Enlai was, for decades, one of the most prominent and respected leaders of the Communist movement. Born into an upper-class family, he was drawn into the vortex of Chinese politics during the May Fourth Movement.
In he traveled to Europe on a work-study program in which he met a number of future CCP leaders. He joined the Party in and returned to China inbecoming the political commissar of the Whampoa Military Academy in Canton during the first united front with the Nationalists.
But Zhou was always most prominent during periods in which the CCP reached out to otherwise hostile political forces. After the founding of the People's Republic inZhou became premier of the Government Affairs later State Council and foreign minister. In he acted as China's bridge to the nonaligned world at the Bandung Conference, and in the same year helped engineer initial contacts with the U.
He passed the foreign minister portfolio to Chen Yi in but continued to play an active role in foreign policy. Zhou supported Mao Zedong in the latter's Cultural Revolution attack on the entrenched Party bureaucracy, and subsequently played a critical role in rebuilding political institutions and mediating numerous political quarrels.