The Employment Relationship | John Budd - badz.info
4 The Employment Relationship John W. Budd and Devasheesh Bhave The sell their labor. from different schools of thought see the This might consist of an Each subsection starts with a maximize profits. description of the relevant. managing realtionships with employees and labor unions in ways that three objectives of employment relationship . Four Schools of Thought . used to define the beginning of the modern era in US labor relations-one in. Four Schools of Thought 2 There are four schools of thought about the employment relationship. There is the Mainstream Economics School, the Human.
In this vein, industrial relations scholarship intersects with scholarship in labour economicsindustrial sociologylabour and social historyhuman resource managementpolitical sciencelawand other areas.
Industrial relations scholarship assumes that labour markets are not perfectly competitive and thus, in contrast to mainstream economic theoryemployers typically have greater bargaining power than employees. Industrial relations scholarship also assumes that there are at least some inherent conflicts of interest between employers and employees for example, higher wages versus higher profits and thus, in contrast to scholarship in human resource management and organizational behaviourconflict is seen as a natural part of the employment relationship.
Industrial relations scholars therefore frequently study the diverse institutional arrangements that characterize and shape the employment relationship—from norms and power structures on the shop floor, to employee voice mechanisms in the workplace, to collective bargaining arrangements at company, regional, or national level, to various levels of public policy and labour law regimes,[ citation needed ] to varieties of capitalism  such as corporatismsocial democracyand neoliberalism.
When labour markets are seen as imperfect, and when the employment relationship includes conflicts of interest, then one cannot rely on markets or managers to always serve workers' interests, and in extreme cases to prevent worker exploitation. Industrial relations scholars and practitioners, therefore, support institutional interventions to improve the workings of the employment relationship and to protect workers' rights. The nature of these institutional interventions, however, differ between two camps within industrial relations.
In the workplace, pluralists, therefore, champion grievance procedures, employee voice mechanisms such as works councils and trade unionscollective bargaining, and labour—management partnerships.Why good leaders make you feel safe - Simon Sinek
In the policy arena, pluralists advocate for minimum wage laws, occupational health and safety standards, international labour standardsand other employment and labour laws and public policies. From this perspective, the pursuit of a balanced employment relationship gives too much weight to employers' interests, and instead deep-seated structural reforms are needed to change the sharply antagonistic employment relationship that is inherent within capitalism.
Militant trade unions are thus frequently supported.
Four Views of Labor Unions and Collective Bargaining
History[ edit ] Industrial relations has its roots in the industrial revolution which created the modern employment relationship by spawning free labour markets and large-scale industrial organizations with thousands of wage workers. Low wages, long working hours, monotonous and dangerous work, and abusive supervisory practices led to high employee turnover, violent strikesand the threat of social instability.
Industrial Relations School Critical Industrial Relations School Using the Internet research information on these four schools of thought, and analyze each by identifying the following: Its view on unions e. Its approach to labor relations and providing employees a voice in bargaining.
Your own views on each school of thought e. Why or why not? Some of the articles in the references make minimal impact on the theory, but they should be read and some of the references within them might be of value. You will want to narrow the information to make a more coherent essay.
I used the questions posed as the outline format. Mainstream Economics Its view on unions e. Competitive markets, when it comes to the buying and selling of labor, or to the labor relationship, the employment relationship, is through competitive markets.
So, that's if the answer to this question about labor as a commodity is yes.
Labor Relation Theories: Schools of thought and unions
If your answer to this question is no, that labor is not a commodity, then you open the door to the three other perspectives that we talked about on the previous slide, the human resource management perspective, the industrial relations perspective, and the critical industrial relations perspective. So, I'll come back to each one of those. But, let's talk about the second assumption that stands at the heart of how we think about labor relations and how the workplace should be governed, and that's the question, "Are employers and employees equals in this competitive labor market?
And, if the answer to this question is yes, that you think that they are equal, that you think that labor and management have equal power in this relationship, then it brings us back again to the mainstream economics perspective, to the neoclassical economics perspective.
And, again, the way in which one who believes that the parties are equal and that labor is just a commodity like any other commodity, the way in which the workplace is governed given these responses to these assumptions is through competitive markets. If your answer is no, then it brings us back to these three other perspectives. And, the way in which we distinguish between these three other perspectives, the HR, the industrial relations, and the critical industrial relations perspective is based on the third question, which is "Are there inherent conflicts of interest between employers and employees?
And, if your answer to that is no, if your answer to that question is no, that there aren't inherent conflicts of interest, then you're likely to take a unitarist approach, or a human resource management approach, which believes that management and employees don't have inherent tensions or conflicts of interest between them, and management and labor, and employees, can have a single interest or agenda that they're trying to obtain, hence, the term the unitarist approach.