Hitler And Franco | Relationship Information
Stanley Payne, a leading historian of modern Spain, explores the full range of Franco's relationship with Hitler, from to the fall of the Reich in But as . The issue of the relationship between Spain's General Franco and Hitler has been a controversial one for many years. The “conservative” view. The general and dictator Francisco Franco () ruled over Spain from Spanish Civil War when, with the help of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, his.
Franco 'feared Hitler would kidnap him' - Telegraph
Life Under Franco Many Republican figures fled the country in the wake of the civil war, and military tribunals were set up to try those who remained. These tribunals sent thousands more Spaniards to their death, and Franco himself admitted in the mids that he had 26, political prisoners under lock and key. The Franco regime also essentially made Catholicism the only tolerated religion, banned the Catalan and Basque languages outside the home, forbade Catalan and Basque names for newborns, barred labor unions, promoted economic self-sufficiency policies and created a vast secret police network to spy on citizens.
Though he sympathized with the Axis powers, Franco largely stayed out of World War II but did send nearly 50, volunteers to fight alongside the Germans on the Soviet front. Franco also opened his ports to German submarines and invaded the internationally administered city of Tangier in Morocco. Following the war, Spain faced diplomatic and economic isolation, but that began to thaw as the Cold War heated up. In Spain allowed the United States to construct three air bases and a naval base on its soil in return for military and economic aid.
As Franco aged, he increasingly avoided daily political affairs, preferring instead to hunt and fish. At the same time, police controls and press censorship began to relax, strikes and protests became more commonplace, some free-market reforms were introduced, tourism increased and Morocco gained its independence.
Franco died on November 20,after suffering a series of heart attacks. At his funeral, many mourners raised their arm in a fascist salute. Indeed, in Juneafter the Fall of Francethe Spanish Ambassador to Berlin had presented a memorandum in which Franco declared he was "ready under certain conditions to enter the war on the side of Germany and Italy".
Franco had cautiously decided to enter the war on the Axis side in Juneand to prepare his people for war, an anti-British and anti-French campaign was launched in the Spanish media that demanded French Morocco, Cameroon and the return of Gibraltar. At first Adolf Hitler did not encourage Franco's offer, as he was convinced of eventual victory. In Augustwhen Hitler became serious about having Spain enter the war, a major problem that emerged was the German demand for air and naval bases in Spanish Morocco and the Canaries, which Franco was completely opposed to.
This had become part of a strategy to forestall Allied intervention in north-west Africa. Hitler promised that "Germany would do everything in its power to help Spain" and would recognise Spanish claims to French territory in Moroccoin exchange for a share of Moroccan raw materials. Franco responded warmly, but without any firm commitment. Falangist media agitated for irredentismclaiming for Spain the portions of Catalonia and the Basque Country that were still under French administration.
By this time, the advantages had become less clear for either side.What did Spain do in World War II?
Franco asked for too much from Hitler. In exchange for entering the war alongside the alliance of Germany and Italy, Franco, among many things, demanded heavy fortification of the Canary Islands as well as large quantities of grain, fuel, armed vehicles, military aircraft and other armaments.
In response to Franco's nearly impossible demands, Hitler threatened Franco with a possible annexation of Spanish territory by Vichy France.
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At the end of the day, no agreement was reached. A few days later in Germany, Hitler would famously tell Mussolini, "I prefer to have three or four of my own teeth pulled out than to speak to that man again!
- Francisco Franco
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- Economic Relations between Nazi Germany and Franco’s Spain 1936–1945
Garden of the Rights of the Child, Saint-Denis. Spain relied upon oil supplies from the United States, and the US had agreed to listen to British recommendations on this. As a result, the Spanish were told that supplies would be restricted, albeit with a ten-week reserve.
Lacking a strong navy, any Spanish intervention would rely, inevitably, upon German ability to supply oil. Some of Germany's own activity relied upon captured French oil reserves, so additional needs from Spain were unhelpful. From the German point of view, Vichy's active reaction to British and Free French attacks Destruction of the French Fleet at Mers-el-Kebir and Dakar had been encouraging, so perhaps Spanish intervention was less vital.
Also, in order to keep Vichy "on-side", the proposed territorial changes in Morocco became a potential embarrassment and were diluted.
As a consequence of this, neither side would make sufficient compromises and after nine hours, the talks failed.
By autumnhowever, the situation had turned Hitlers air force had been defeated in the Battle of Britain, and Britain was clearly far from finished.
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There was a crucial factor here for Spain; the powerful British Navy. Britain used its ships to blockade Spanish ports and limit the amount of essential material, especially fuel, allowed in. The US followed its lead in limiting exports to Franco. Franco was the son of a naval officer; he knew the power of the British Navy and that a total blockade in the event of war might tip Spain, already the on the breadline, into revolt.
Hitler, however, now wanted Franco in the war so that he could seize Gibraltar.
The two dictators met on the border between Spain and France, in October Hitler urged Franco to enter the war; Franco said that he would, but in return demanded French colonial territory and a huge amount of supplies to make up for a full British blockade. Hitler needed to keep the Vichy regime in France friendly and did not want to give away part of the French empire.
Hitler And Franco
Hitler left the meeting with only vague and insubstantial commitments from Franco, and said that rather than go through such a negotiation again he would rather have three teeth pulled. It seems to me that the question of supplies was crucial; Franco knew he needed these if he declared war. He may not have realised that Germany too had limited fuel supplies or that in the territories Hitler had conquered, even agriculturally rich countries like France, food production was already crashing into a nosedive.
Another consideration making him cautious was that many monarchists were pro-English; Britain gave substantial bribes to senior monarchists to oppose Spain entering the war. That was the end of any prospect of Spain coming in on Hitlers side. But by latewith Russia resisting strongly and the US in the war, it was clear Germany was going to lose.
But this was pragmatism, not a position of principle. Inas the Allies invaded occupied Europe Franco, with breathtaking nerve, wrote to Churchill offering to help the victorious democratic powers in the future struggle against communism. Churchill, who in the early years of the war had considered overthrowing Franco, took the bait and argued, against many senior Americans, that the Franco regime should be left in place. That is what happened.