Examine the relationships of Hermione and Leontes, Paulina and Antigonus, and Perdita and Florizel and the ways in which their relationships work or fail to. is Leontes Jealous of his relationship with Hermione? "and his pond fished by his next neighbour, by sir smile, his neighbour." very strong. The relationship between Hermione and Leontes would be seen by a Shakespearian audience as one to approve of and, with regards to this play, it is possibly.
How like, methought, I then was to this kernel, This squash, this gentleman. She invites him to sit down by her, and to tell her a story. In the trial scene Act III, sc ii Hermione is aware not only of her own position but of the effect of her reputation upon her son: Through his mad passion of jealousy, Leontes has been responsible for the death of such a son and heir.
He has also sent his other possible heir, his daughter, to be abandoned in some wild spot. In Act V, sc i, we see that the courtiers, apart from Paulina, want Leontes to marry again; without an heir, the kingdom is in danger: This would be a very obvious point to the Shakespearean audience, some of whom would remember the turmoil following the death of Edward VI inand all of whom would remember the anxiety over who would succeed Elizabeth I in Protestant vs Catholic and the Stuart monarchy.
The moral consequences of Mamillius' death Of course, Perdita is found, and through her marriage to Florizel unites the two kingdoms. Hermione, apparently dead, comes back to life. But she is too old now to have more children. Shakespeare, as Norman Holland points out, seems to be engaged in a visual pun on "bear.
The bear" is " Leontes in the partial sense that it embodies the mother he embodies psychically and who, in turn, embodies his representative. It is no accident that Antigonus was the one to identify wolves and bears with nurses II. The domestic aspect of this Shakespearean sport emerges in the Clown's taste for metaphor: I have not winked since I saw these sights: I would you did but see how it chafes, how it rages, how it takes up the shore! But that's not to the point. O, the most piteous cry of the poor souls!
And then for the land-service, to see how the bear tore out his shoulder-bone, how he cried to me for help and said his name was Antigonus, a nobleman. But to make an end of the ship, to see how the sea flap-dragoned it: If we take our clue from the erotic meaning of "service" 16 we can recognize a fantasy of sexual contact suffused with boundary anxieties, as the feminine ship, phallic and penetrating, is itself swallowed like a phallic cork in a hogs-head.
Highly charged sight followed by disappearance, alternating activity and passivity, the confusion of phallic and oral language, the Clown's intermixture of sea-and-land-service, bodily and natural violence, his own fantasy and the external event-all this creates a transposed re-enactment of Leontes' confusion, Hermione's" fury" and Paulina's curse.
We may also imagine Shakespeare sinking the maternal " vessel" he fears. In any case, on land and sea the fantasized concomitants of Leontes' ambivalent wish for fusion are exorcized. Yet the shame associated with Leontes' fantasy of sexual contact enacted by surrogates for himself dissolves in this re-enactment of his anxieties.
The Clown's speech, in its self-conscious diction, its stylized mixture of subjectivity and objective reporting, and in its balance at the end of action and response, transforms archaic terrors into structured art. It thus forms a miniature of the transformative strategy of the whole play. Other important transformations occur in the scene's second half. Perdita, magically exempt from the catastrophic effects of the storm and the bear, comes to embody the essence of the wish for dual unity initially symbolized by the" twinn'd lambs" of Polixenes' childhood fantasy.
The Shepherd, who immediately replaces Antigonus in the paternal role only these two are called" old man" [III. When he finds the child, she and the riches that come with her, for the Shepherd is avid for wealth is found instead of his sheep. This symbolic act of exchange signifies, I think, the abandonment of the substitute for the original unity with the mother the masculine bond of the boyhood myth in a return to the symbol of the original unity itself, the maternal child.
In the marvelous economy of this exchange, Shakespeare enacts a benign version of the regressive rhythm Leontes followed. Now the curse of death sexualized violence cannot impinge on the desire for life.
How do relationships succeed or fail in the Winter's Tale?
Here, in the pivotal line of this pivotal scene, union and separation of death and life, disintegration and revitalization, come together in the shape of language. To keep "things dying" associated with winter, sexual confusion and boundary loss separate from" things re-born" associated with spring, and patterned, lawful creativity and to bring them together through the structured mediation of art comprises the Shakespearean strategy for mastering his love-hate relationship with an archaic mother child matrix and its cultural embodiments.
If the Clown's description of the storm and the bear exemplifies the transformation of the dangers adhering to this matrix, the Shepherd's line exemplifies the broader strategy of balancing the opposites symbolically to allow for symbolic interplay.
As we shall see, this more inclusive strategy is central to the repopulation of the play's world in the long sequence of the pastoral. The Figure of Time To close gaps, Shakespeare first widens them. On the coast of Bohemia he widened the spatial distance between the locus of conflict and its reenactment, and now, in the figure of Time, he widens the gap between the past and the future, infancy and adolescent blossoming, and he bridges it simultaneously.
Nuttall says, "Shakespeare's Time chorus is an unashamedly allegorical figure who has stepped out of an altogether older type of drama, perhaps with some assistance from the fashionable world of the Masque.
In other words, Time reconstitutes the awareness Leontes lost of the difference between action and the consciousness of it as " acting" in the theatrical sense. Time, before he speaks, says, "This is a play. I that please some, try all: Time is inclusive " joy and terror," "good and bad," "makes and unfolds"in sharp contrast to the exclusive priorities of the play's earlier action.
Time's power is authorial in all the senses Shakespeare's authorial presence makes itself felt in the play. Time embodies in words the paradox that will be realized in the final scene, the capacity of time, imagined as timeless, to deny time. In the world of The Winter's Tale, Shakespeare makes acceptance of this paternal image the condition for our reception of his reversal of imagined loss.
But if the figure of Time is invested with the powers of a self-sufficient paternal image, this figure also reverses the roles of parent and child by inviting us to indulge his transgressions of reality: Impute it not a crime To me, or my swift passage, that I slide O'er sixteen years.
In making us the judges of Time, Shakespeare, in effect, invites our complicity in his authorial fantasy. This is not mere rhetoric, but a pre figural strategy that will come to full fruition in the final scene. Seductive tact and theatrical decorum invest the mystique Paulina will direct then, and now we are invited to dignify the techniques she will use. Shakespeare plays Time to use our trust to sanction his.
Of this allow, If ever you have spent time worse ere now; If never, yet that Time himself doth say, He wishes earnestly you never may.
This time no woman is called upon to mediate the king's desire for the continuous presence of his friend. The scene dramatizes the avoidance of separation in the context of masculine idealizations. Camillo, whom Polixenes promised to respect "as a father" I.
Polixenes, now in the position of Leontes, openly confesses the absolute dependency he feels. Here the dependency relationship so precariously desired by Leontes finds rich expression: As thou lov'st me, Camillo, wipe not out the rest of thy services by leaving me now: Implicit in his avowal of need is the threat that separation will evoke the loss of love.
In the economics of such love, the actual presence of the needed other is the only guarantee against emotional reversal, and Polixenes promises fuller payment of thanks in exchange for the guarantee he requires: Polixenes dreads separation from the sources of his continuous well-being.
In the course of this short scene he equates separation with death, recalls the loss of Leontes' queen and children and devises a strategy for preventing the loss of his son. I fear, the angle that plucks our son thither" Separation is prevented when the two men unite in the artifice of disguise; they agree to become the concealed embodiments of paternal vigilance.
In Bohemia change and loss are mitigated by strategies for linking dependency to artifice, as we shall see more fully in the pastoral.
Polixenes succeeds where Leontes failed because he can defer Camillo's wish for reunion in the interest of his own wish for the recovery of his absent son, and he can do this without the aid of a woman.
Shakespeare makes the recovery of masculine trust the pre-requisite for the validating of trust in women. Where such masculine trust is displayed, the ground is prepared for the reversal of paranoiac fears.
Men and Masculinity inThe Winters Tale by Abi Beach on Prezi
Bohemian Play Before we enter the pastoral festival, Shakespeare introduces his most playful embodiment of subversive action, Autolycus. His presence in the play indicates how full is Shakespeare's control of the sacrilegious terrors of Leontes' jealousy, for Autolycus is permitted to play with and play on the sexuality and boundary confusions that threaten courtly life.
Shakespeare's rhythmic patterning of threat and defense is nowhere clearer than in the fact of his presence. From the moment of his opening song, he celebrates the triumph of spring over winter, nurturance and sexuality over the violent splitting of the two: When daffodils begin to peer, With heigh!
Instead of clinging to the sources of physical and emotional supplies, Autolycus plays with his fears, and he makes changes his constancy, directionlessness his direction, role playing his role: But shall I go mourn for that, my dear?
The pale moon shines by night: And when I wander here and there, I then do most go'right. Autolycus means" very wolf.
Mercury, we remember, stole the oxen of Apollo in his infancy, charmed Apollo with songs, and was worshipped by shepherds. For Autolycus orality-aggressive and musical-is a form of family loyalty, not family violation. When he encounters the Clown on the way to buy food for the festival, we see a fine example of his strategic use of his deprived condition. He presents himself as the victim of robbery, aggression and body mutilation as Leontes didindeed, as a victim of himselfin order to get what the Clown has, money.
To gratify himself, he announces a projection of himself as the tormentor of himself, a neat parallel of Leontes' abortive script. After his pocket is picked, the Clown becomes for Autolycus the embodiment of oral gratification, four times called" sweet sir" 78,Ill, Autolycus makes narcissistic needs into displays of dependency in order to control his victim. Autolycus functions as a parodic foil to the masculine anxieties of the court.
A creature of surfaces, and of words, he is a veritable grab-bag of perverse fantasies. He exhibits himself and his wares with a theatricality that is the counterpart of Leontes' paranoid projections.
Leontes assimilates surface behavior to private fantasy; Autolycus provides the surfaces sheets in the double sense, cloth and paper upon which others project their desires: Lawn as white as driven snow, Cypress black as e'er was crow, Gloves as sweet as damask roses, Masks for faces and for noses.
As he tells us after the festivities, his profit derives from the idolatry of his victims: I have sold all my trumpery: He renders his prey helpless with theatrical displays, visual and verbal fantasies, an ironic reduction of Shakespeare's own theatrical powers.
He acts out playfully one side of Shakespeare's ambivalent relation to the religious stance the play finally affirms. Idolatry, he tells us, is a form of sexual vulnerability: And its actual effect is the admiration of "Nothing"actual deprivation, and the illusion of feminine wholeness: Pins, and poking-sticks of steel, What maids lack from head to heel. In the manipulative strategies of Autolycus, Shakespeare also displaces and contains the perverse fantasies Leontes projected on to intimate family relationships.
Now these fantasies become the stuff of art, not the realities of courtly life: Here's one, to a very doleful tune, how a usurer's wife was brought to bed of twenty money-bags at a burden, and how she longed to eat adders' head and toads carbonadoed. Is it true, think you? Very true, and but a month old. Bless me from marrying a usurer! Bateson succinctly defines this difference: In play, they are both equated and discriminated.
In the Sicilian court the equation of map and territory Leontes' madness confronts its polar opposite, the absolute discrimination of private fantasy from public myth Paulina's and Apollo's stances.
Mamillius » The Winter's Tale Study Guide from badz.info
In the pastoral play of Bohemia the" great difference" lies in the process of playing itself, the interplay of equation and discrimination of pure identities and perverse or dangerous transformations. As we shall see, in a way very different from Autolycus', this interplay is central to the central symbolic person of the play, Perdita.
It comprises a full-scale play-within-the play, and it can be divided easily into five acts. Notice, for example, the two dances that temporarily suspend the action of the plot. The first is a dance of shepherds and shepherdesses and it comes after Perdita has given her flowers to the others, as if to celebrate the completion of her role in the festival. The second, a dance of twelve satyrs, complements the first, in the sense that it acts out a rough and phallic rhythm, as if to introduce the rupture of the festival mood that follows.
Shakespeare does split this world, but my point is that he does it in ways that integrate the surface rhythm of the play and its defining motives.
A symbolic union of opposites is expressed in the formal interplay of the pastoral world itself. To take one further example, consider part of Florizel's idealization of Perdita: