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How much do you know about nationalism and imperialism? Test your knowledge on this history quiz to see how you do and compare your. Africa, and the Middle East as they relate to imperialism and nationalism. tests and quizzes, distraction free environment for tests and quizzes, a note taker, pages, summarizing and critiquing the film and drawing connections between the . As Cuban and Puerto Rican nationalists discovered, by the latter half of the In many new nation-states, imperialism went hand in hand with nation building.
He was captured on September 2, at the Battle of Sedan. Italy[ edit ] Throughout the Middle Ages and early modern period Italy consisted of a patchwork of small states. Its urbanization and position in the Mediterranean meant that Italy was a politically important region and, for much of this period it was dominated by foreign powers, most notably the Bourbon dynasty which, during the eighteenth century, provided kings for both France and Spain.
The dominance of foreign powers was brought to an end by the Napoleonic wars. Napoleon's attempts to dominate the peninsula failed, and the monarchies of France and Spain were weakened by long years of war. Moreover, Napoleon had attempted to conglomerate much of Italy into a single state, a process that encouraged a sense of the Italians belonging to a nation. It is notable, for instance, that Napoleon provided Italy with its national flag, the green, white, and red tricolore.
Although the Treaty of Vienna restored many of the small Italian states, nationalist feeling remained, and was preserved by nationalistic and revolutionary groups, such as the Carbonari in southern Italy.
These groups were inspired by revolutionary activity in other European states. As a result, the early nineteenth century saw numerous small insurrections against the autocrats ruling the Italian states, most notably with the French-inspired revolts ofwhich afflicted the Papal States.
Such revolts were frequently small in scale, however, and were easily dealt with by the rulers of Italy. The Italian Unification movement was led primarily by two central figures: Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, who supplied much of the ideology for the movement, and Giuseppe Garibaldi, who led the fighting of the movement.
He built up the strength of Piedmont-Sardinia, establishing a strong army, a healthy economy, and political freedoms, such as freedom of the press. Austria invaded Italy, but the Italians, aided by French troops, defeated the Austrians at the battles of Magenta and Solferino.
Garibaldi led the Red Shirts, or guerilla fighters in Italy. He was a supporter of a republic but conceded to a monarchy. He took his forces into southern Italy and successfully conquered Naples and the two Sicilies. Cavour sent troops south to stop Garibaldi from invading Rome, which was occupied by French troops, but both sides met in Naples and surprisingly became allies. However, Italy's agrarian south and industrial north had difficulty uniting, and the unification was not complete untilat the end of the Franco-Prussian War.
The state was considered weaker in military terms than other nations and had lost to Britain and France in the Crimean War of — It had an autocratic tsar with no social contract, and serfdom still existed in Russia. There was a small middle class with much less industrialization. Nicholas I came to power after the death of his brother, Alexander I.
His reign began marred by the Decembrist revolt of among the soldiers, some of whom supported his other brother. Thus, Nicholas ruled through police action and use of the army.
Alexander II came to power, using the defeat in the Crimean War as the major impetus to reform. He believed that Russia needed to follow the European model in order to become more powerful.
As a result, inhe gave the serfs freedom. However, the serfs were still bound in many ways to their formal feudal dues. The former serfs were given only half of the land, and the nobles were allowed to keep the other half. In addition, former serfs had to pay a communal redemption fee to their former lords. In addition, Alexander II ended the secret police started by Nicholas I, and he created public trials that had professional judges with state salaries as well as juries.
Zemstvos were created, which were local provincial councils, elected by the people, that dealt with local governmental issues such as roads and schools.
Finally, Alexander reduced the draft from 25 years to 6 years. Despite Alexander's actions, unrest continued in Russia. Peasant revolutionaries resented the redemption fees, and two new groups arose in Russia.
The first, the nihilists, believed in nothing but science and rejected traditional society and culture. The second, the anarchists, led by Mikhail Bakunin, set out to destroy any government, even a reformist tsar like Alexander II.
In a number of key battles, the war resulted in a surprise victory for Japan in a peace agreement brokered by U.
Nationalism & Imperialism Quiz - By mscass
President Theodore Roosevelt in The war resulted in the establishment of Japan as a major world power. Japan modelled European industrialization and militarism, and increased its focus on China, gaining dominion over Korea and establishing a claim to Manchuria. This expansion helped to cause World War I. The war marked the first major victory of a non-western power over a western power.
As a result of the failure of the war in Russia, there was considerable discontent at home, and this discontent led to the Revolution of Finally, as a result of the defeat, Russia turned its interests back to the West and the Balkans.
The Revolution of [ edit ] Under Czar Nicholas II, who ruled from tothe people believed that "papa czar" could hear their grievances and he would fix them. However, the people soon learned that the czar could not be trusted. On what has become known as "Bloody Sunday," June 22,a peaceful march of thousands of St. Petersburg workers to the Winter Palace by Father Gapon took place.
The marchers desired an eight hour work day, the establishment of a minimum wage, and a constitutional assembly.
However, the Czar was not in the city, and Russian troops panicked and killed several hundred of the marchers. As a result of Bloody Sunday, riots erupted throughout the country during Soviets formed the councils of workers in St. Demands for representation increased, and the moral bond between the people and the czar was broken. As a result, the October Manifesto was granted to stop the disturbances.
The October Manifesto provided a constitution, a parliament called the Duma, and some civil liberties. The Duma actually possessed little power, however, and was primarily intended to divide and subdue the revolutionaries.
Stolypin's Reforms[ edit ] Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin was appointed minister by the Czar to address the problems of At Stolypin's recommendation, the czar ended redemption payments by the serfs, increased the power of the zemstvos, and allowed the peasants to own their land outright for the first time. Peasants were now allowed to buy more land to increase their holdings, and were even given loans.
In some sense this was a sincere attempt at reform, and it created a new class of prosperous, entrepreneurial peasants called Kulaks. However, for the most part this was again an attempt to subdue revolutionaries, as the ulterior motive of the plan was to create a new class of peasant farmers who would be conservative and loyal to the czar.
Under Stolypin's lead, revolutionaries and dissenters were brutally punished in what became known as "Stolypin Neckties. Imperialism[ edit ] The Ultramarine Papal disputes between Spain and Portugal were long gone and both nations had been in decline since late 16th, first one then the other as the British Empire had stated to take shape as a challenge to thwart the old powers, especially Spain and France. The Seven Years' War — permitted Britain's to rise among the world's predominant powersit destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, in North America s and opened the conquest of large parts of India, thus altering the European balance of power.
This was also the time the Industrial Revolution started to take shape in Great Britain. So bypolitical stability of European nations resulted in renewed interest in imperialist endeavours, expansionism and power.
Britain had became heavily involved in colonialism. The newly-unified Germany saw expansion as a sign of greatness and France and other European nations also remained involved in imperialist affairs due the pressured of foreign competition. By we see the start of the Victorian eraPax Britannica and the heights of Imperialism. The white man's burden - a satiric take This age cemented the notion of British exceptionalism as it had political, military and economic domination of the world. Giving birth to the British notion of the white man's burden.
While similar there are distinctions between this ideology and motivations in relation to the previous ones, especially the religious fervor that marked the Spanish maritime expansionism. Spain was a Roman Catholic Nation and Britain had long become Protestant InKing Henry VIII put an end to all papal jurisdiction in England, after the Pope failed to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragonthis seemingly simple differences had very large implications, first the Papacy had been the seat of power during the previous "word orders", much of the benefit and actions reflected into gains for the Roman church that had more or less maintained stable control over the head of states of what are the territories of today's Europe and the territories they controlled across the world, this important distinction is self evident in the ways Portugal and the Spain "colonized" and controlled territories in relation to England.
The other subtle distinction is how Protestantism sees personal worth, it is more centred in work, social structure, participation. This lead not only the seat of power being the Britain head of state, but that any national religious fervour be turned into national profitability and a centralization and depuration of notions regarding economic policies and legal proceeding. This is further validated when we compare the evolution of other Protestant dominated nations and their central social strength around the same values, for instance Holland and Germany.
The white man's burden held that the white man had an obligation to forcefully spread their ideas and institutions with others. This, of course, was utilized by some of the European governments as moral justification for their imperialistic foreign policies as British supremacy and influence increased.
In addition, as a result of European industrialization, nations had an increased need for various resources, such as cotton, rubber, and fuel.
Moreover, a high level of nationalism was at the time being experienced across Europe, particularly as a result of Napoleon's Empire. As nationalism grew at home, societies began to desire more troops for their army, and thus colonies were needed to provide more troops, as well as naval bases and refuelling points for ships.
By the late s, a number of nations across Europe possessed new colonial territories. Belgium had taken the Congo in central Africa. France controlled Algeria, and Italy controlled Somalia. It was said that "The sun never sets on the British Empire. In Asia, the British, Dutch and French all established or expanded their colonies. Crimean War[ edit ] The Crimean War found its roots in the so-called "Eastern Question," or the question of what to do with the decaying Ottoman Empire.
The Crimean War was provoked by Russian tsar Nicholas I's continuing pressure on the dying Ottoman Empire, and by Russia's claims to be the protector of the Orthodox Christian subjects of the Ottoman sultan. Britain and France became involved in order to block Russian expansion and prevent Russians from acquiring control of the Turkish Straits and eastern Mediterranean, and to prevent Russia from upsetting the European balance of power.
The Crimean War is considered one of the first "modern" wars and it introduced a number of "firsts" to warfare. The Crimean War marked the first time rail-roads were used tactically to transport troops and to transport goods to troops over vast distances. The War also marked the first time steam powered ships were used in war.
Additionally, new weapons and techniques were used, including breech-loading rifles, which loaded from the rear, artillery, and the deployment of trenches. The telegraph was used for the first time as well, allowing for the first "live" war to be broadcast in the press. The conflict marked the end of Metternich's Concert of Europe. At the end of the war, Russia was defeated and as a result looked weak.
In their modern form, arguments about the causes and value of imperialism can be classified into four main groups. The first group contains economic arguments and often turns around the question of whether or not imperialism pays.
Those who argue that it does point to the human and material resources and the outlets for goods, investment capital, and surplus population provided by an empire. Hobson, often admit that imperialism may benefit a small, favoured group but never the nation as a whole. Marxist theoreticians interpret imperialism as a late stage of capitalism when the national capitalist economy has become monopolistic and is forced to conquer outlets for its overproduction and surplus capital in competition with other capitalist states.
This is the view held, for instance, by Vladimir Lenin and N. Bukharinto whom capitalism and imperialism are identical.
The weakness in that view is that historical evidence does not support it and that it fails to explain precapitalist imperialism and communist imperialism. A second group of arguments relates imperialism to the nature of human beings and human groups, such as the state.
Nations and Empires, 1850–1914
Such different personalities as MachiavelliSir Francis BaconLudwig GumplowiczAdolf Hitlerand Benito Mussolinireasoning on different grounds, nevertheless arrived at similar conclusions. Imperialism to them is part of the natural struggle for survival. Those endowed with superior qualities are destined to rule all others. The third group of arguments has to do with strategy and security.
Those who deny the value of imperialism for these purposes point out that security is not achieved. Related to the security argument is the argument that nations are imperialistic in the search for power and prestige for their own sake. The fourth group of arguments is based on moral grounds, sometimes with strong missionary implications. Imperialism is excused as the means of liberating peoples from tyrannical rule or of bringing them the blessings of a superior way of life.
Imperialism results from a complex of causes in which in varying degrees economic pressures, human aggressiveness and greed, search for security, drive for power and prestige, nationalist emotions, humanitarianism, and many other factors are effective. This mixture of motivations makes it difficult to eliminate imperialism but also easy for states considering themselves potential victims to suspect it in policies not intended to be imperialistic.