The Concept Love and Its Depiction: Essay Example, words GradesFixer
Antonio's love for Bassanio can be seen in act1 scene 3 by his decision of sacrificing his life to Title page of the first quarto of The Merchant of Venice ( ). Free Essay: Portia and Bassanio in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice “The Bassanio is in terrible debt and he sees marriage to Portia as a. Merchant of Venice Essays - Portia and Bassanio in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. which the most romantic is the love between Portia and Bassanio. In contrast, the other two Their relationship typifies ideal love and.
However, Shylock adamantly refuses any compensations and insists on the pound of flesh.
As the court grants Shylock his bond and Antonio prepares for Shylock's knife, Portia deftly appropriates Shylock's argument for "specific performance". She says that the contract allows Shylock to remove only the flesh, not the "blood", of Antonio see quibble.
Thus, if Shylock were to shed any drop of Antonio's blood, his "lands and goods" would be forfeited under Venetian laws.
Compare and contrast the two characters Portia and Bassanio
She tells him that he must cut precisely one pound of flesh, no more, no less; she advises him that "if the scale do turn, But in the estimation of a hair, Thou diest and all thy goods are confiscate. She cites a law under which Shylock, as a Jew and therefore an "alien", having attempted to take the life of a citizen, has forfeited his property, half to the government and half to Antonio, leaving his life at the mercy of the Duke.
The Duke pardons Shylock's life. Antonio asks for his share "in use" until Shylock's death, when the principal will be given to Lorenzo and Jessica. At Antonio's request, the Duke grants remission of the state's half of forfeiture, but on the condition that Shylock convert to Christianity and bequeath his entire estate to Lorenzo and Jessica IV,i.
The Concept Love and Its Depiction
Bassanio does not recognise his disguised wife, but offers to give a present to the supposed lawyer. First she declines, but after he insists, Portia requests his ring and Antonio's gloves. Antonio parts with his gloves without a second thought, but Bassanio gives the ring only after much persuasion from Antonio, as earlier in the play he promised his wife never to lose, sell or give it.
Nerissa, as the lawyer's clerk, succeeds in likewise retrieving her ring from Gratiano, who does not see through her disguise. At Belmont, Portia and Nerissa taunt and pretend to accuse their husbands before revealing they were really the lawyer and his clerk in disguise V. After all the other characters make amends, Antonio learns from Portia that three of his ships were not stranded and have returned safely after all. The title page from a printing of Giovanni Fiorentino's 14th-century tale Il Pecorone The first page of The Merchant of Venice, printed in the Second Folio of The forfeit of a merchant's deadly bond after standing surety for a friend's loan was a common tale in England in the late 16th century.
The play was mentioned by Francis Meres inso it must have been familiar on the stage by that date.
The title page of the first edition in states that it had been performed "divers times" by that date. Salerino's reference to his ship the Andrew I,i,27 is thought to be an allusion to the Spanish ship St. A date of —97 is considered consistent with the play's style. The play was entered in the Register of the Stationers Companythe method at that time of obtaining copyright for a new play, by James Roberts on 22 July under the title The Merchant of Venice, otherwise called The Jew of Venice.
On 28 October Roberts transferred his right to the play to the stationer Thomas Heyes ; Heyes published the first quarto before the end of the year.
It was printed again inas part of William Jaggard's so-called False Folio. Afterward, Thomas Heyes' son and heir Laurence Heyes asked for and was granted a confirmation of his right to the play, on 8 July The edition is generally regarded as being accurate and reliable. It is the basis of the text published in the First Foliowhich adds a number of stage directions, mainly musical cues. Critics today still continue to argue over the play's stance on the Jews and Judaism.
Shylock and Jessica by Maurycy Gottlieb. Shylock as a villain[ edit ] English society in the Elizabethan era has been described as "judeophobic".
The Merchant of Venice - Wikipedia
In Venice and in some other places, Jews were required to wear a red hat at all times in public to make sure that they were easily identified, and had to live in a ghetto protected by Christian guards.
One interpretation of the play's structure is that Shakespeare meant to contrast the mercy of the main Christian characters with the vengefulness of a Jew, who lacks the religious grace to comprehend mercy. Similarly, it is possible that Shakespeare meant Shylock's forced conversion to Christianity to be a " happy ending " for the character, as, to a Christian audience, it saves his soul and allows him to enter Heaven.
The Nazis used the usurious Shylock for their propaganda. Shortly after Kristallnacht inThe Merchant of Venice was broadcast for propagandistic ends over the German airwaves. This was the first known attempt by a dramatist to reverse the negative stereotype that Shylock personified. With slight variations much of English literature up until the 20th century depicts the Jew as "a monied, cruel, lecherous, avaricious outsider tolerated only because of his golden hoard".
Many modern readers and theatregoers have read the play as a plea for tolerance, noting that Shylock is a sympathetic character. They cite as evidence that Shylock's "trial" at the end of the play is a mockery of justice, with Portia acting as a judge when she has no right to do so. The characters who berated Shylock for dishonesty resort to trickery in order to win. In addition, Shakespeare gives Shylock one of his most eloquent speeches: Why, I am sure, if he forfeit, thou wilt not take his flesh.
What's that good for? To bait fish withal; if it will feed nothing else, it will feed my revenge. It is, however, biased to import sexuality onto characters when there is little textual evidence to support the claim. When we look at a relationship such as that of Antonio and Sebastian in Twelfth Night where the insinuation of homosexual desire is far more evident from the text alone it suggests that people often look for themes in a text which are only tenuously suggested and build an argument around them.
Some critics have suggested homosexual feelings between Iago and Othello, Hamlet and Horatio and other such characters, based on the fact that they remain ladyless at the end of the play. I feel that it is dangerous to make assertions to suit our own point of view when there is no explicit evidence within the play itself. Although the physical elements of love are not discussed by Antonio in The Merchant of Venice his actions make clear his feelings for Bassanio.
One of the main themes of the play is trade and usury. This can be seen in the interaction of the male characters. The relationship between Antonio and Bassanio reflects the economy of the play.
Bassanio exploits Antonio and, to a certain extent, Portia by constantly borrowing money. Venice is the background for all the trade in the play and as such is a very male dominated area. It is here that Bassanio tells Antonio that his friendship means more than anything, including Portia. Belmont is set in opposition to Venice, with the feminine power of Portia and Nerissa. Belmont uses the language of love and desire, whereas Venice uses the language of trade.
It is no surprise, therefore, that we only see Shylock in Venice. He certainly does not fit in with the romantic imagery of Belmont. He is the biggest threat to happiness in the play.
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We can see this in his pound of flesh speech. To Shylock money is the only important thing as a merchant. This perhaps sheds light on the relationship between Antonio and Bassanio.
She wants to give Bassanio clues, unfairly favoring him, but she resists so as not to be any less virtuous. This introduces a concept contemporary theory calls the male gaze, and it suggests that, if Shakespeare could have been insightful enough to depict the male gaze albeit without contemporary terminologyhis insight could just as easily have identified in the men of his reality this then unquantifiable aspect of the male persona that binds men to each other so closely that they prefer their heterosocial bonds to any relationship they could form with a woman; moreover, without the modern concepts of sexual orientation, Shakespeare would not have considered this to be deviant or unnatural behavior.
It would seem unsubstantiated to suggest that Shakespeare tapped into this insight of his own accord long before the theories were officially published were it not for the consistencies throughout the play to validate the idea that Shakespeare may have, indeed, lacked only the modern terminology to describe contemporary concepts that he contemplated on his own.
The determining male gaze projects its phantasy on to the female figure which is styled accordingly. In their traditional exhibitionist role women are simultaneously looked at and displayed, with their appearance coded for strong visual and erotic impact so that they can be said to connote to-be-looked-at-ness.
Portia is women are divided into these two incredibly narrow, patriarchal representations, and as Portia goes on to say, both halves are for Bassanio men. It stands to reason that Shakespeare could only write so affectively if he genuinely had an abnormal gift for understanding people.
In an alternate articulation of this concept of the male perspective dividing women against their will and, thus, halving their perceived value in both sexuality and humanity, Mulvey draws conclusions about earlier sections of her article, explaining how it is women in film are subjected to this division of self.
She characterizes it in terms of cinema and uses a Freudian approach as opposed to the Lacanian approach of the previous quotebut most of the aspects of cinema she references also pertain to any artistic rendering of man or woman as he or she relates to his or her world: A and B have set out two contradictory aspects of the pleasurable structures of looking in the conventional cinematic situation.
The first, scopophilic, arises from pleasure in using another person as an object of sexual stimulation through sight. The second, developed through narcissism and the constitution of the ego, comes from identification with the image seen.
This dichotomy was crucial for Freud. In themselves they have no signification, they have to be attached to an idealisation [sic]. None of this is to say that Shakespeare deliberately depicts gay lovers torn apart by circumstance; rather, he depicted an aspect of homosocial behavior and interaction that he recognized in his time—a time in which people were not particularly aware of what modern socialites call homosexuality—as a level of intimacy between men that could not be compared to the relatively inferior intimacy a man has with a woman; therefore, what signifies homosexuality in the twenty-first century did not in the sixteenth and could long ago be deemed natural in the minds of men who saw homosexuality as something so unnatural that they presumed their intimate feelings for male friends to be little more than great friendship.