Social Casework: Nature, Values, Principles and Trends
Seven Principles of the Social Work Relationship. Felix Biestek. PURPOSEFUL EXPRESSION OF FEELINGS. Recognition of the client's need to express. Principles of casework are established by maintaining a close relationship between caseworker and the client. Relationships bring about a change in the. focus on the principles of the casework relationship as they relate to The Third. World worker/client relationships. Third World has come to be defined as.
Social workers seek to strengthen relationships among people in a purposeful effort to promote, restore, maintain, and enhance the well-being of individuals, families, social groups, organizations, and communities.
Acceptance is a fundamental social work principle that implies a sincere understanding of clients. Social workers continually strive to increase their professional knowledge and skills and to apply them in practice.
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Social workers should aspire to contribute to the knowledge base of the profession. Principle of Expression of Feelings: Clients need to have opportunities to express their feelings freely to the social worker. The Principle of Controlled Emotional involvement: The social worker should not respond in a way that conveys coldness or lack of interest while at the same time cannot over identify with the client. Principle of Non-judgemental Attitude: Communicating non-judgmentalism is essential to developing a relationship with any client, It does not imply that social workers do not make decisions rather it implies a non-blaming attitude and behaviour.
Social workers judge others as neither good or bad nor as worthy or unworthy. The principle of self-determination is based on the recognition of the right and need of clients to freedom in making their own choices.
Social workers have a responsibility to create a working relationship in which choice can be exercised. Access to Resources social workers are implored to assure that everyone has the necessary resources, services, and opportunities: Caseworker must have full knowledge about his strengths and limitations.
If he fails to handle the client who is out of his reach to handle then he handles him to the competent authority. Principle of Social Functioning: Individual must know his social roles and responsibilities as per the environment he is living in.
Principle of Tuning Behaviour: The child learns where and when to pass faeces, what to eat, what to put on, etc. It goes on further.
What are principles of social Casework.
He learns the language, how to address mother, father, guests, seniors, etc. This process of learning goes on and he becomes a person by learning the social manners, social customs, morals, laws, etc. He, as a member of the society, tries to establish his place in his group—family, neighbourhood, village, etc.
So, he does not remain a mere organism but becomes a person through the process of socialisation. What he is today is the product of interaction of the organism with psychological, social and geographical factors.
And, the social functioning how does he act in relation to self and others is the result of the interaction of man, who is a product of biological physicalpsychological thinking, feeling, perception, learning, memory, etc. In the psycho-social study and diagnosis, efforts are made to locate the bio-psycho-social factors vis-a-vis environmental factors and understand their contribution to the social functioning and the problem of the client.
Social casework, to start with was more concerned with socio-psychological problems. With the advancement in the field, social casework has been described as a psychological process also dealing with psycho-social problems as well. The fact is that no unit of our functioning in the society, say any act is either purely psychological or social. For example, I think to present a pen to my child and I give it.
This is psychosocial in nature. Similarly, when I see my teacher, I bow down and greet him, which is termed as a socio-psychological act. However, in all the acts, we see both social as well as psychological components. Thinking takes place in a social context, and the way I think, has been patterned by the society.
Our ideas, beliefs and attitudes have been learnt from the society and its culture. All the problems caseworkers deal with are psycho-social in nature, i. The causative factors of the problem may be either in the psyche or in the social circumstances or in their interaction Gestalt. Many a time, these problems have interpersonal components as well. So, during the exploratory and diagnostic process one tries to understand the characteristic way of functioning, interaction of the psyche and social forces, and relationship pattern of the client.
Man is a product of a very subtle and complicated interaction process between bio-psycho-social including environmental factors. Under no circumstances any one can understand this process to the fullest extent. Nobody can remember all that has happened to him during his earlier parts of life. This becomes more evident when we find that one invariably forgets what has happened to him even during one day.
This is the human limitation. Hence, naturally, one can study and understand a person within certain limits only and thus the help to be given to him will be limited by the understanding of the man in question and the availability of various resources. This assumption implies that there is no limit to growth and development of an individual except the one imposed by our genetic potentialities inherited by us. For example, we cannot make a person with an I.
This assumption helps us plan our intervention realistically and reduces our frustration involved in the process of helping others. See principle of individualisation for its explanation. Principles are certain assertions or statements which guide our professional action.
In social casework practice, these principles are as discussed under: Acceptance implies liking the client irrespective of his negative qualities and conduct. It is an expression of goodwill towards the client and criticisms evaluation if any are done out of goodwill. It is conveying deep concern and active understanding to the client who is liked by the worker in spite of his problem—behaviour for which he is hated or punished by the society. No effective relationship is possible without accepting the client.
Unless we really accept the client, we cannot work out his problems. When disliked by us, we may behave to keep him off from ourselves and no positive relationship report will be possible. Acceptance involves observance of common courtesies and respect for his ideas and treating him as equal to self; for example, leaving chair, wishing him, moving forward to receive, or see him off, respecting appointments, etc.
Everyone prefers to keep his things to himself and saves it from leaking out unless its divulge is more beneficial to the person. Once the client loses confidence in him, he will not believe the worker and the whole process of communication will break down, and impossible will be the task to assist the helped in his problems or in fulfillment of his needs. Maintaining confidentiality for all the transactions, that take place between the caseworker and client in correctional settings or other places where law needs information for justice purpose, is very difficult or impossible.
In all such situations, the client must be made aware of these limitations. Concept of confidentiality in western society is much different than what it is in India. In our country, wife and husband have minimum things to hide from each other as compared to their counterparts in the western, specially American, society. In majority of Indian families wives cannot be interviewed without explicit permission of the husband or in-laws.
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Its roots lie in our cultural beliefs and values like seven vows taken during the Hindu marriagenorms and systems like joint family etc. Our society is more group-oriented as compared to individual-oriented western society. It is these factors that limit the use of principles of confidentiality in our practice. These limits are true of Mohammadens and Christians also as they too equally share these Indian norms, values and beliefs.
Principle of Relationship Rapport: According to this principle, relationship is the medium to help anyone. Relationship has to be positive to be effective. No relationship, no communication.
Relationship is an emotional bond, which works as a transmitting belt between the concerned parties. No rapport, no help. Relationship positive is the basis of all help. In relationship, feelings play an important role, therefore, these needs to be understood and handled properly. Principle of Resource Utilisation: This principle is based on the value that the society has responsibility to provide necessary facilities for self- actualisation of its members.
Services are provided to the individual in recognition of his contributions to the society.
It is only because of this that the government takes care of those who are not cared for by anyone, e. Therefore, all the personal resources and resources available within the community, agency and with the relatives of the client should be utilised to help the client. Resources may be in terms of money, material, power and influence, talents and capabilities etc.
Principle of Right of Self-determination: Principle of Right of Self-determination This principle is based on a very fundamental democratic value. Right of self-determination has been demanded by various people living in various regions of the world so that they can choose their own government.
Caseworkers have to give this right to the client so that he can decide and take best possible action in his self-interest. This is reasonable also because he knows himself better than others. And, the caseworker is only an enabler who helps him through his expertise to take the best possible decision and action in the circumstances. The caseworkers should understand that this right is limited and is a relative and not an absolute one.
There are clients who are unable to take proper decisions about self, e. This principle has emerged from the experience of practitioners who have observed and experienced that social work practitioners substitute their personal values, norms, etc. They have been observed as projecting their own feelings and imposing their values and norms on them.
All these simply destroy the helping process. In fact, the worker should: Self-awareness helps the caseworkers to use only professional values and norms and help the client in such a way that he is able to re-live comfortably when he goes back to his own society. Principle of Purposiveness of Behaviour: Behaviour includes all expressions of our body—verbal as well as non-verbal.
Hence, all the relevant behaviours except reflex actions expressed during the casework interviews, or other ones known to have been indulged in by the client in other situations, should be analysed and assessed diagnosed to plan a realistic approach to help the client to replace his inappropriate behaviour with an appropriate one and two critically examine the purpose behind his problem behaviour or behaviour pattern.
Assessment of these behaviours of the client speaks either about the personality of the client or his situation or about the nature of their interaction. Principle of Requirements of Agency Practice and Settings: Every caseworker, to avoid frustration to himself and the client and to be effective in his services, should know the policies and procedures of the agency thoroughly. He must know the limitations of the agency as well as that of the setting in which the agency is operating.
Settings like psychiatric or correctional or family welfare etc. Agency limitations should be fully explained to the client to be effective.
Principle of Beginning where the Client is: This principle appears to have been derived from Gestalt therapy. The principle directs to know what the client is experiencing, what he wants and what he feels at this moment. His feelings are as important as any other objective fact. We know that every person is similar to others as well as unique in himself. This assumption becomes clear when we notice that the theories of psychology, sociology, medicine, etc.
At the same time, he has certain characteristics which are unique to him only. This uniqueness comes to him because of differing background of every individual and because of many minute and subtle psychological and constitutional differences.
Inter-play between bio-psycho-social factors and environment gives a certain shape to personality which is unique to the person though he is similar to others because he has human figure, thinking capacity and feelings like any other human being.
It is because of this assumption only that we have to identify the special ways of the client behaving in social situations and the special help he needs.