Does social media help the government-citizen relationship? Depends who you ask
Government agencies are turning to social media as a new way to engage with People in the trenches – responding to citizen complaints on. Parliament and government both play a part in forming the laws of the United Kingdom. The Government are the people responsible for running the country. The Queen's role in Government The Queen also has a special relationship with the Prime Minister, retaining the right to appoint and also meeting with him or .
Even this is because of the fact that in view of the necessity of the existence of government in the society, the existence of a set of rules and regulations is indispensable and in implementing the laws and solving disputes to happen in understanding and acting upon the law, every society is in need of an implementer who can say the final word in practice and the law that solves disputes.
The one whose word is the law and has the final say does not speak out of his own will and carnal desire; rather, his word is either a direct revelation of God if he is a prophetor a divine inspiration if he is an infallible Imamor an authoritative and credible understanding of the content of the revelation and word of the Infallible when there is no access to the Prophet or an infallible Imam.
Anyway, it is because of this that all are equal before the law and there is distinction among them. The people and the Ruler as Responsible before God Now, given this explanation, is the Islamic ruler a dictator? The answer is negative. He cannot dictate something out of his own desire.
Is the Islamic ruler the servant and slave of the people and their agent? Again, the answer is negative. Is he a servant and mercenary of the people?
God has determined the salary of the ruler from the public treasury. God the Exalted has made it incumbent upon the people to place a portion of their wealth at the disposal of the Islamic ruler. In addition, He has placed at the discretion of the Islamic ruler the spoils, assets and incomes belonging to the society in general.
Such a person can implement the laws promulgated by God the Exalted even if it is not pleasing to the people. If the ruler is only a servant or proxy of the people, he has no right to impose on them what they do not like, nor order things which all people or the majority of them do not accept. Meanwhile, does the Islamic ruler have the right to give such an order?
Yes, because it is the order and ordinance of God. Therefore, in the Islamic government the divine law must be implemented. Even if one day most of the people do not like it, the Islamic government has the right to and must implement the law of Islam including the hudud 3 which is not acceptable to the world today.
The people may desire to make some things permissible and free which God the Exalted has not sanctioned. In this case, the Islamic ruler has to forbid it and put restraint on its practice and not allow the people to practice it even if most of them want to do so. Of course, all people are obliged to implement the ordinances of God but the ruler is particularly commissioned to make the law of God incumbent upon them and to punish the violators.
To punish the violators is a divine decree. Thus, the Islamic ruler is not a dictator who decides by himself and orders whatever he wishes and makes it incumbent upon the people to implement.
He is not a servant and proxy of the people to abide by whatever they dictate to him. In the Islamic government, all are equal before the law, and as such, the governors and the governed are not different from each other, and we have no higher and lower classes.
Examples of such citizens are the People of the Book [ahl al-kitab] and the non-Muslims who live under the protection of the Islamic government. Since these people are not Muslims, the main decrees of Islam shall not be implemented to them and the main taxes of Islam khums and zakat shall not be levied to them.
They pay jizyah instead. In return for this insignificant amount of taxes, their life, property and honor are legally protected under the auspices of the Islamic government. He is a servant just like the other servants of God. At most, he has a special responsibility. The rights and duties of both parties are determined by God, Who has set two proportional rights for the people and the government—a right for the people over the government and another for the government over the people. The determiner of right is He Who has created both parties.
The people have no right to set rights for themselves, because they are not the owners of their selves and their existence does not belong to them. For the same reason, they have no right to decide a set of rights for others.
British Columbia: Building relationships with Indigenous peoples - Province of British Columbia
Similarly, the government has no right to set a right for itself or others. The ruler is one of the servants of God, and his existence, like that of everybody and everything else, is from God and belongs to Him. However, since God the Exalted is All-wise, He has set balanced rights for both the government and the people. Due to the service it renders to the people, the government has rights over them while they have rights over it. This is another model of government and mutual relationship of the people and the government which is not so known and comprehensible to the minds accustomed with the Western culture.
Let us forget that as far as we know, an example of democratic government does not exist in the world at all. They are ostentatiously parties. At times, one party comes to power while at another time, the other party does. In reality, money and assets of the capitalists is the actual determinant and ruler.
Chapter 14: The Mutual Relationship between the People and the Government (Part 5)
Those who decide behind curtains and give campaign funds so as for a party to win are the owners of capital. The natural and usual trend is that whoever campaigns more will win in the election.
Yet, the masses are in difficulty providing for their daily life expenditure, let alone spending for election campaign huge expenses with spiraling figures which are spent in the European and American countries for election campaigns. Perhaps, you might have heard or read that, for example, the deposed Shah of Iran was among those who assisted in the Republican Party in the elections of America.
The helpers who are more known in the world and whose assistance is the determinant are the Zionists and their capitalists. The actual determinants of the American governments and similar to them in some other countries are the same Zionist capitalists.
The common people are not very familiar with a leading candidate in an election. They only witness the profound magnitude and wide scope of his propaganda. Usually, their participation in the elections is very weak such that in most cases, below fifty percent of the eligible voters participate in the elections and even that is through the force of propaganda generated with the money of the capitalists. This shows that the government in reality belongs to the capitalists.
British Columbia: Building relationships with Indigenous peoples
Also, this subject is not a claim which is advanced by me only. In fact, Western writers and researchers have acknowledged it and written numerous books and articles in this regard. Theoretically speaking, what is customary in the world is that either the people are subdued by and are subjects of the governments, or the government and the ruler are under the domination of the will and demand of the people.
We explained that in Islam, the government is something else. The third alternative is that both the people and the ruler have the same Master; namely, God. Both are servants before God, but before each other, both are masters and each has rights over the other. So now, Allah the Glorified, by placing me over your affairs, has created my right over you, and you too have a right over me like mine over you.
He has right to me as well as to you. Thus, the determinant of right and duty is God the Exalted, for, as we explained at the beginning of this series of discussions, once a right is set for a person over another person, automatically a duty for the second person will come into being.
Once the ruler has right to give order, the people are duty-bound to behave in accordance with the order. In cases where the people have rights, the government is obliged to observe their right because right and duty are proportional and correlative. The continuation of the sermon is a very interesting and detailed passage.
I wish we can divide the sermon into different parts, and in every meeting, I can deal with each part of this blessed speech. This radiant speech contains very lofty and instructive subjects. It also consists of knowledge that is considered the solution to many issues on the philosophy of ethics, law, politics, and all practical philosophies. At this moment we shall deal with some other lines of this sermon: Then, from His rights, He, the Glorified, created certain rights for certain people against others.
As He has rights over His servants, God the Exalted has set rights for some people over others based on His right, which essentially belongs to Him and no one is supposed to grant it to Him; namely, right of Lordship.
Since He is God and the Creator and Master of all things and people, and the existence of the entire universe emanates from him, He has such rights over His servants. Based on that Essential right God has over His servants, He has set rights for some of His servants over others. He made them so as to equate with one another. The rights He has set for some people over others are balanced.
Balance and proportionality mean that once He sets a right for party A, He also sets a right for party B so as for these rights to become proportional to each other. It is not the case that this side is heavy while that side is light. The Arabic word tatakafa' means equal and alike, and these rights are also equals. Some of these rights produce other rights. Some rights are such that they do not accrue except with others.
The existence of some of these rights requires a right for others. To achieve this standard, students should be able to describe the purposes, organization, and functions of the three branches of the national government legislative, i.
Alexis de Tocqueville evaluate the extent to which each branch of the government reflects the people's sovereignty, e. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding the major responsibilities of the national government for domestic and foreign policy.
To achieve this standard, students should be able to explain the major responsibilities of the national government for domestic policy and how domestic policies affect their everyday lives and their community explain the major responsibilities of the national government for foreign policy and how foreign policies, including trade policy and national security, affect their everyday lives and their community evaluate competing arguments about the proper role of government in major areas of domestic and foreign policy, e.
Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding how government should raise money to pay for its operations and services.
To achieve this standard, students should be able to explain the history of taxation in the United States and why taxation is necessary to pay for government explain provisions of the United States Constitution that authorize the national government to collect taxes, i.
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. How are state and local governments organized and what do they do? Content Summary and Rationale State governments are established by state constitutions. Each has its own legislative, executive, and judicial branch. States possess substantial powers that, along with their local and intermediate governments, affect citizens' lives from birth to death.
Local governments provide most of the services citizens receive, and local courts handle most civil disputes and violations of the law. State and local governments license businesses, professions, automobiles, and drivers; provide essential services such as police and fire protection, education, and street maintenance; regulate zoning and the construction of buildings; provide public housing, transportation, and public health services; and maintain streets, highways, airports, and harbors.
Because of their geographic location and the fact that their meetings usually are open to the public, state and local governments are often quite accessible to the people. Members of city councils, boards of education, mayors, governors, and other officials are often available to meet with individuals and groups and to speak to students and civic organizations.
Citizens need to know the purposes, organization, and responsibilities of their state and local governments so they can take part in their governance. Content standards The constitutional status of state and local governments. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding the proper relationship between the national government and the state and local governments.
The proposed Constitution, so far from implying an abolition of the State Governments, makes them constituent parts of the national sovereignty This fully corresponds, in every rational import of the terms with the idea of a Federal Government. Alexander Hamilton To achieve this standard, students should be able to describe similarities and differences between their state constitution and the federal constitution describe the limits the United States Constitution places on the powers of the states, e.
Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding the relationships between state and local governments and citizen access to those governments. The support of State governments in all their rights, as the most competent administration of our domestic concerns, are the surest bulwarks against anti-republican tendencies. Thomas Jefferson To achieve this standard, students should be able to describe how their state and local governments are organized, e.
Students should be able to identify the major responsibilities of their state and local governments and evaluate how well they are being fulfilled.
To achieve this standard, students should be able to identify the major responsibilities of their state and local governments and explain how those governments affect their lives identify the major sources of revenue for state and local governments, e. What is the place of law in the American constitutional system? Americans look to the principal varieties of law--constitutional, civil, and criminal-- for the protection of their rights to life, liberty, and property.
It establishes limits on both those who govern and the governed, making possible a system of ordered liberty which protects the basic rights of citizens and promotes the common good.
This basic notion of the rule of law has been accompanied by the ideal of equal protection of the law, a central theme in the history of the United States. Law pervades American society. Americans look to the principal varieties of law--constitutional, civil, and criminal--for the protection of their rights to life, liberty, and property. It is often argued, however, that Americans are overly dependent on the legal system to manage disputes about social, economic, and political problems rather than using other means available to them such as private negotiations and participation in the political process.
An understanding of the place of law in the American constitutional system enhances citizens' capacity to appreciate the importance of law in protecting individual rights and promoting the common good. This understanding provides a basis for deciding whether to support new laws and changes in existing law. Content standards All persons shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, and accommodations of any place of public accommodation, as defined in this section, without discrimination or segregation on the ground of race, color, religion, or national origin.
Civil Rights Act of The place of law in American society. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the role and importance of law in the American political system. To achieve this standard, students should be able to explain why the rule of law has a central place in American society, e.
Supreme Court cases such as Marbury v. Board of Education, U. Earl Warren explain how the individual's rights to life, liberty, and property are protected by the trial and appellate levels of the judicial process and by the principal varieties of law, e. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on current issues regarding the judicial protection of individual rights.
To achieve this standard, students should be able to explain the importance of an independent judiciary in a constitutional democracy explain the importance of the right to due process of law for individuals accused of crimes, e.
Jane Addams describe historical and contemporary instances in which judicial protections have not been extended to all persons describe historical and contemporary instances in which judicial protections have been extended to those deprived of them in the past explain why due process rights in administrative and legislative procedures are essential for the protection of individual rights and the maintenance of limited government explain major means of conflict resolution, including negotiation, arbitration, mediation, and litigation and their advantages and disadvantages describe the adversary system and evaluate its advantages and disadvantages explain how the state and federal courts' power of judicial review reflects the American idea of constitutional government, i.
How does the American political system provide for choice and opportunities for participation? Content Summary and Rationale Morality cannot be legislated, but behavior can be regulated. Judicial decrees may not change the heart, but they can restrain the heartless.
The formal institutions and processes of government such as political parties, campaigns, and elections are important avenues for choice and citizen participation. Another equally important avenue is the many associations and groups that constitute civil society. All provide ways for citizens to monitor and influence the political process. American constitutional democracy is dynamic and sometimes disorderly.
The political process is complex and does not always operate in a smooth and predictable manner. Individually and in groups, citizens attempt to influence those in power. In turn, those in power attempt to influence citizens. In this process, the public agenda--the most pressing issues of the day--is set, and public opinion regarding these issues is formed.
Public opinion sets bounds to every government and is the real sovereign in every free one. James Madison If citizens do not understand the political process and how to participate in it effectively, they may feel overwhelmed and alienated.