Sex Lives of Lewis and Clark Expedition Provides Instructive Angle on Journey -
Sacagawea was a Lemhi Shoshone woman who is known for her help to the Lewis and Clark .. To the contrary, this spelling traces its origin neither through a personal connection with her nor in any primary literature of the expedition. Sacagawea was the only female among 32 male members of the Lewis and as controversial as it may be, a building bridge in the success in Indian relations. Native American Leaders: Pocahontas and Sacagawea protect settlers and improve relations between Europeans and Native Americans. Charbonneau joined the Lewis and Clark Expedition (), exploring a route to the Pacific.
Sacagawea Meets Lewis and Clark Meanwhile, President Thomas Jefferson had made the Louisiana Purchase from France in —, square miles of almost completely unexplored territory. Within this vast wilderness he hoped would lie the rumored Northwest Passage a waterway connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. But Jefferson wanted more from the explorers who would search for the passage: He charged them with surveying the natural landscape, learning about the varied Native American tribes and making maps.
He turned to his secretary, Meriwether Lewisto head the Corps of Discovery.
Lewis, 29, chose his friend and former military superior, year-old William Clarkas his co-captain. After more than a year of planning and initial travel, Lewis and Clark and their men reached the Hidatsa-Mandan settlement—about 60 miles northwest of present-day Bismarck, South Dakota—on November 2,when Sacagawea was about six months pregnant.
Charbonneau spoke French and Hidatsa; Sacagawea spoke Hidatsa and Shoshone two very different languages. He carried lifelong celebrity status as the infant who went with the explorers to the Pacific Ocean and back. There, Jean-Baptiste spent six years living among royaltywhile learning four languages and fathering a child in Germany named Anton Fries.
He became a gold miner and a hotel clerk and in led a group of Mormons to California. He disliked the way Indians were treated in the Missions and left to become a hotel clerk in Auburn, Californiaonce the center of gold rush activity. He was 61 years old, and the trip was too much for him.
He became ill with pneumonia and died in a remote area near Danner, Oregonon May 16, The origin of each tradition is described in the following sections. Lewis and Clark's original journals mention Sacagawea by name seventeen times, spelled eight different ways, each time with a "g". The spelling Sacagawea was established in as the proper usage in government documents by the United States Bureau of American Ethnologyand is the spelling adopted by the United States Mint for use with the dollar coinas well as the United States Board on Geographic Names and the U.
The spelling is used by a large number of historical scholars.
Sacagawea - HISTORY
Sakakawea is the official spelling of her name according to the Three Affiliated Tribeswhich include the Hidatsaand is widely used throughout North Dakota where she is considered a state heroinenotably in the naming of Lake Sakakaweathe extensive reservoir of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River.
Her Hidatsa name, which Charbonneau stated meant "Bird Woman," should be spelled "Tsakakawias" according to the foremost Hidatsa language authority, Dr. When this name is anglicized for easy pronunciation, it becomes Sakakawea, "Sakaka" meaning "bird" and "wea" meaning "woman.
The spelling authorized for the use of federal agencies by the United States Geographic Board is Sacagawea. Although not closely following Hidatsa spelling, the pronunciation is quite similar and the Geographic Board acknowledged the name to be a Hidatsa word meaning "Bird Woman. To the contrary, this spelling traces its origin neither through a personal connection with her nor in any primary literature of the expedition. It has been independently constructed from two Hidatsa Indian words found in the dictionary Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indianspublished by the Government Printing Office.
Washington Matthews, 65 years following Sacagawea's death, the words appear verbatim in the dictionary as "tsa-ka-ka, noun; a bird," and "mia [wia, bia], noun; a woman.
The use of this spelling almost certainly originated from the use of the "j" spelling by Nicholas Biddlewho annotated the Lewis and Clark Expedition's journals for publication in This use became more widespread with the publication of the novel The Conquest: It is likely Dye used Biddle's secondary source for the spelling, and her highly popular book made it ubiquitous throughout the United States previously most non-scholars had never even heard of Sacagawea.
The Lemhi Shoshone call her Sacajawea. It is derived from the Shoshone word for her name, Saca tzah we yaa. Also, William Clark and Private George Shannon explained to Nicholas Biddle Published the first Lewis and Clark Journals in about the pronunciation of her name and how the tz sounds more like a "j".
What better authority on the pronunciation of her name than Clark and Shannon who traveled with her and constantly heard the pronunciation of her name? We do not believe it is a Minnetaree Hidatsa word for her name. Sacajawea was a Lemhi Shoshone not a Hidatsa. The term for 'boat' in Shoshoni is saiki, but the rest of the alleged compound would be incomprehensible to a native speaker of Shoshoni.
Her husband Charbonneau spoke Hidatsa and French.
Sex Lives of Lewis and Clark Expedition Provides Instructive Angle on Journey - 2004-02-23
In effect, Sacagawea and Charbonneau would become an intepreter team. Sacagawea, with the infant Jean Baptiste, was the only woman to accompany the 33 members of the permanent party to the Pacific Ocean and back. Her activities as a member of the Corps included digging for roots, collecting edible plants and picking berries; all of these were used as food and sometimes, as medicine.
On May 14,the boat Sacagawea was riding in was hit by a high wind and nearly capsized. She recovered many important papers and supplies that would otherwise have been lost, and her calmness under duress earned the compliments of the captains. The next day, they found a group of Shoshones. On August 17, after five years of separation, Sacagawea and Cameahwait had an emotional reunion.
Then, through their intepreting chain of the captains, Labiche, Charbonneau, and Sacagawea, the expedition was able to purchase the horses it needed. Sacagawea turned out to be incredibly valuable to the Corps as it traveled westward, through the territories of many new tribes.
Some of these Indians, prepared to defend their lands, had never seen white men before.