ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS: CIRCULATION — PORTICO
In architecture, the concept of circulation isn't so different - it refers to the I will look at what circulation is, and how you can design for it - using the I also touch on how architects represent circulation, often using diagrams. Explore Chris Bamborough's board "Architectural / Spatial Diagrams Google Search Zaha Hadid Projects, Parametric Design, Cartography, Diagram . A one hectare sample showing the Lakou's relationship to neighboring social space. them, and design qualities that can be studied by using functional diagrams. .. Some decisions about the functional relationship between spaces and el- . Transparency is the degree of opaqueness of a spatial edge, .. ARCHITECTURE.
Whether representing suffering or dematerialized state they elicit questions about the subject. The column as a body in the Danteum can also be compared to some of Dali' s paintings of The Divine Comedy. His fascination with the human body and its transfiguration is paralleled in an abstract manner in the Danteum. Terragni's use of the column in the entrance courtyard, the Inferno, and the Paradise, is comparable to Dali's use of the body that varies from almost sculptural and monumental in the Inferno to painterly in the Paradise.
In fact, Terragni's u,se of the column, getting compressed between floor and slab, monumental and gigantic, is almost like the suffering sculptures of Dali, while columns of Paradise are suggestive of Dali' s dematerialized bodies. It would not be too far-fetched to say that in this comparison between Terragni and Dali we see differences in the symbolic medium and the language rather than the content that is being communicated.
The first encounter of columns may be seen to fit the idea of a society. Here the grid of columns personifies the multitude. As we proceed through the three realms, the distribution of the columns continues to have effects upon the potential perception of other visitors as a society. In addition to the father figure, Virgil, or love, Beatrice, there are friends, family, enemies, and citizens.
In the Danteum columns qualify potential co-presence in contrasting ways. In Inferno, the other visitors would help scale the building, and thereby, enhancing the perception of the scaling of columns and the overall experience of distortion embedded in the environment; in Paradise, the presence of visitors would produce a multitude of refracted facets and colors which would in turn intensify the impression of disembodiment.
The drawings of the Danteum point to the recursive use of the golden-section rectangle, an over arching geometrical discipline that governs much of the design. The relazione document certainly makes that point amply evident. At what stage in the design process after the initial diagram this proportioning system became the guiding feature we shall never know. Nevertheless, once the decision was taken there are certain properties that the golden-section rectangle inherently possesses which were exploited to its full.
The rectangle can be divided into a square and another golden- section rectangle. This means that there is an aspect of infinite recursion since this division theoretically can go on indefinitely.
Each golden rectangle would also have other golden rectangles nested within, in the same proportion. S6, while the square shape is normally associated with stability, the golden rectangle, which can be derived from a square, becomes associated with a recursive series of similar rectangles.
In the Danteuffi, the contour of the entire building and all internal spaces are golden rectangles in plan. This -proportioning system has an added dimension - its geometry generates the positioning of columns.
The columns in the courtyard are all the same size and arrayed upon a square 10 Lionel March. The Architectonics of Humanism.
The ones in the Inferno follow the spiraling and recursive break-up of the large golden-rectangle. They successively diminish in scale as each is positioned at the center of a nested square. The third operation that is used to generate the design that of overlapping two squares, is also disciplined according to extreme and mean ration proportions.
The two basic overlapping squares are so shifted as to define a golden rectangle as their composite perimeter. The pattern of overlap however also generates the narrow transition spaces that mediate the connection between the realms. Internal Logic of the Medium: Experiential, Spatial, and Conceptual As a symbolic medium, architecture engenders patterns of co-presence and co-awareness, which become integral to the construction of architectural meaning.
In fact, buildings frame and condition the patterns of co-presence, co-awareness, potential communication, and potential interaCtion through which we realize, reproduce, and control social and cultural relationships.
By implication, architectural space can be seen in two complementary ways. First, plans can be read as maps of social relationships because spatial boundaries function as tp.
Second, the morphology of space can be read as the abstract framework within which the morphologies of movement and encounter become intelligible in their own right. Co-presence is not as directly and as pervasively present in language, even though language implies communication. The spatial positioning of the recipient of linguistic communication is only partially embedded in the formal structure of language itself, and largely inferred from context.
Not only is the sequence of movement through landscape associated with patterns of encounter with named individuals. The sucial relationships in which those individuals participated while alive are extensively discussed, while their 11 ErnstCassirer, The Philosophy ojSymbolic Forms. Yale University Press, When the poem is transcribed into architecture, the pattern of co-presence is automaticall y engendered by space as a medium even before becoming architecturally thematized, accentuated or qualified.
If we accept the proposition that the columns are associated with the body and its states of suffering, the arrangement of the columns implicitly represents a pattern of virtual co-presence, while also conditioning the real co-presence of people visiting the monument.
If we were to assume a group of visitors. The forest of columns would disperse the group and dissipate literal co-presence even though the columns themselves, treated as virtual bodies, are rigorously ordered.
This is the exact equivalent of the introduction to the Comedy, where the poet is literally lost in the forest but metaphorically lost in the scheme of life. In Inferno, the virtual bodies are distorted out of common scale and their suffering is expressed in the exaggeration or reduction of the column diameter, as well as the dislocation of floor and ceiling.
The presence of other visitors would allow a familiar scale of human bodies to juxtapose itself to the scale of virtual suffering. This is in analogy to the dialogues, and narration within the dialogues, which help Dante to make sense of the landscape and the sufferings to which he is introduced by Virgil.
In Purgatory, the absence of columns potentially accentuates our impression of the body as a virtual column placed on prepared pedestals. We also get an impression of uneven, unequal positioning and potential ascent much in the same manner that souls progress in The Divine Comedy and are not fixed forever at a given location. Ultimately, in Paradise, visual patterns of co-awareness are established, however refracted, because the evenly distributed columns are transparent.
This entire progression from courtyard to paradise is framed between clearly defined points of entry and exit. It would therefore not be far-fetched to claim that the architectural body of the building serves as the means for the emergent poetics of co-presence of visitors.
What is significant here, from the point of view of the notational systems used to construct architectural meaning, is the fact that the same device,' the column, is deployed both as symbolic personification and embodiment of subjective states, and as literal generator of states of co-awareness between visitors. As each medium is used to constitute additional meanings, our -focussing on geometry and number would raise a rather familiar problem of proliferation or elimination of meaning: Would geometry and number be seen' as residual structures after the more explicit layers of meaning have been eliminated, or would the significance of geometry and number endlessly proliferate as other layers of meaning are being woven on their canvas?
Potentially, any form, which is imbued with proportional relationships, would 'then become meaningful, if the cultural context of interpretation incorporated the ideas of cosmology that inspired the classical tradition or The Divine Comedy. However, meaning based on formal properties appears precarious and the underlying symbolism disappears.
We may then advance to a different question: What is being constituted in the building that can be termed a genuinely architectural experience? One answer to this question could be that the way in which spatial orgariization, geometry, number, all operate in unison with other features that contribute to the atmosphere inside, such as materials and light that make the whole experience a special one and specific to the particular work. The generai emphasis in the scholarship on the Danteum is on the conceptual dimension of the building.
However, while the physical form of buildings is subject to constructive logic and conceptualization, the design 'of buildings is normally aimed at engendering significant spatial experiences. Our understanding of architecture is incomplete when we do not try to reconstruct the experience actually engendered by, or projected by the design for, a building.
In this sense, the foregoing analysis complements existing literature. If the Danteum is explored in terms of the peripatetic experience that it would engender, the diversity of views and situations can be gradually assimilated within a synthetic comprehension of the building as a statement of feeling and as an affirmation of meanings that cannot be entirely reduced to propositional form.
The initial 12 For this purpose a three dimensional model was created and a walk through experience generated by animation. Refer to the stills in illustrations for the anticipated viewer experience of spaces within this building.
Nevertheless, the numbers do not provide a geometric composition for the building, though it might be possible to see them as providing a structural underpinning. Let us consider whether the emphasis on geometric composition plays a significant role in the understanding of the building by a visitor. The Divine Comedy is one of the most elaborate journeys in literature; many have even referred to it as one of the most intricate promenades.
In comparison, the Danteum seems to epitomize the notion of a discontinuous sequence in architecture, even though a single path is suggested for the viewer.
spatial relationship badz.info | Texas Architecture | UTSOA
However, spatial progression is of necessity built into our comprehension of architecture as inhabited space: In the Danteum, sequences are handled in quite the opposite manner to a promenade. Thresholds in the Danteum maximize discontinuity and in that sense are consistent with the poem. The realms themselves, on the contrary, are exposed to complete panoramic views, an architectural endowment not always present in the poem.
Our common ideas of promenade play on the interaction between continuity, whether of axis, or of the fabric of the path, and change, whether of setting or of view.
The Danteum establishes a more stringent tension between panorama and discontinuity. Each realm corresponds to a more or less clear horizon within which the differentiated positions and conditions become almost panoramically visible.
The transitions between realms, by contrast, are abrupt and intense. The Body and the Tomb Terragni's design provides for the formation of a narrow strip of space, the Empyrean, which extends from Paradise over the interstitial zone between Purgatory and Inferno.
From there, one has the overview of the three realms and also of the entrance sequence. In addition, at the Empyrean the dual function of the cross becomes apparent: Thus, the Empyrean offers scope for a more synchronic perception of the building that counterbalances the strong sense of discontinuity that permeates the rest of the progression through its parts. How then can we relate our discussion of the sequential and panoramic perception of shape and space, as it is organized by the disposition of the linear boundaries that constitute the cross, to our discussion of the pattern of embodiment as foregrounded by the handling of the columns?
Quite naturally, the function of the cross is to divide space in accordance with the classification of the realms proposed by The Divine Comedy. The disposition of columns is then choreographed within classified space, in a manner that renders explicit the symbolic content of the classification. Put simply, the linear boundaries define the configuration of the container, and the columns represent the content. We may, however, push the interpretation one step further.
The building as a whole is called "Danteum"; it is a monument to Dante. The hermetic closure of the building as a whole evokes less the form of a statue, the direct representation of the body associated with many monuments to persons, and more the tomb, the most powerful monument to the physical, restricted, and closed spatial form that monumentalizes the absence of the person that was qnce able to move among others and to occupy normal built space.
If we look at the Danteum 'as a tomb to Dante, the internal classification of its parts acquires a new significance. The normal tomb suggests ultimate spatial integration, ultimate centering at a particular point, of everything that a person has been.
In the Danteum the center is an intersection of a cross distinguishing three realms. The three realms correspond to the poetic reconstruction of the realms occupied by the poet, realms that represent aspirations and fears, abstract understanding and particular historical events, hopes and regrets, encounters and communities, transience and permanence.
By emphasizing the distinction The body of the poet is as if dispersed in death, in order that the body of the poetry, the creation and inheritance of the poet be embodied in the sharpest relief. From this point of view, the architecture of the Danteum, seen as a transformation of The Divine Comedy, is a monument to the poetic body, not the physical body of Dante.
This reading is consistent with the integrity of the poem, which is multifaceted and dispersed into various media from paintings, to music. But more than that, this reading is consistent with the suggestion that the Danteum can be appreciated more clearly from the point of view of the subject and the life of the subject, than the point of view of a reconstruction of a cosmology.
The Danteum seems to reconstruct the narration of a subjective journey, from which the imagination addresses the structure of the cosmos. This reverses the thrust of the poem which seems to situate the subject within a clearly established cosmology, and to aim at orienting life in accordance with the broader scheme embedded in that cosmology.
The apparent reversal of implicit and explicit meanings, figure and ground, may. In the Dailteum project then, architectural meaning is constructed through spatial relationships that involve an abstract order, movement and co-presence, as well. Here, the mapping from text to space entails a relationship of part to whole, as well as experiential movement and conceptual understanding. But, this in itself is not sufficient. Architecture as a medium does not visually constitute descriptions provided in language, rather it presents metaphors in space.
Some aspects of the text are internalized and reconstituted through metaphors, be it the column or even the seemingly arbitrary yet very crucial choice of the golden-section rectangle in this case.
It is also obvious that the analogies and metaphor seen in the initial diagram in relation to the final scheme offers us insights into the idea of how the synchronic understanding of the shape acts as a design metaphor. It is the integration of these ideas in the geometriC and spatial organization of the final scheme, in other words, the use of the golden-section rectangle as the generating shape that embodies in-itself recurrence, and absence, as well as the overlapping' squares, that create a system of metaphors that work in tandem with the compositional and narrative aspects of the poem.
The three main design operations just discussed are of course at work with other ideas involving materiality, light, etc. Nevertheless, as in the work of any mature designer.
In Terragni's case one can observe the cross that establishes the linear boundaries and distinguishes major spaces in the Palazzo dei Ricevimenti e dei Congressi, designed in for the exposition, the overlapping squares are present in the conceptual diagrams of some houses, and the golden section too is present in prior works.
It is even more significant that he designed considerable number of other tombs and monuments that have different ideas all of which come together in the Danteum. Tombs and monuments designed by Terragni. Other Tombs and Monuments by Terragni Terragni's work prior to and during his design of the Danteum includes many funerary monuments that serve as obvious comparisons to the Danteum project. The Monumento ai Cadutithe Stecchini Tomb and the Pirovano Tomb both designed inand the Sarfatti Tomball show certain features that reoccur in the Danteum project.
There has been extensive writing about the progression from Novecento to Modern Movement observed in Terragni' s tombs and monuments. Based on the scholarship available on Terragni's work one can make several observations of formal and stylistic features exemplified by these tombs that are later seen in the Danteum project in a more sophisticated form.
In the Monumento ai Caduti in Erba and the Monument to the Fallen one observes the initial use of the free standing wall and the ideal of an ascent towards a higher plane commanding an imposing view. The Ortelli tomb at Cernobbio has the slipped rectangle motif, which was since then used consistently by Terragni. The Stecchini Tomb and the Pirovono Tomb, which stand opposite one another along the axis of the Monumental Cemetery in Como, show the solidity of massing.
While the interior space of the Stecchini Tomb is square, the Pirovano tomb has a golden section for its inside volume. The Sarfatti Tomb has the monumentality and grandeur, the theme of the double square, the staircase leading up to the smooth block of the sepulchre.
All the features just described in various tomb are present in the Danteum, nevertheless, it is the Mambretti Tomb that becomes most fascinating to compare with the Danteum project. This project, also un-built like the Danteum shares many of the formal traits, which make it especially interesting. There are two versions of the project. Consider for instance what Schumacher calls the oblong scheme, or Project 1, where the wall is dominant much in the same manner of the free standing wall of the Danteum project.
In this scheme both the plan and section are based on the golden-section.
ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS: CIRCULATION
In addition to this, the pattern of movement in this tomb can be seen in a 13 Thomas Schumacher, Surface and Symbol: The movement might be fast or slow, mechanical or manual, undertaken in the dark or fully lit, crowded or individual. The pathways might be leisurely and winding, or narrow and direct. Of these types of circulation, direction and use are often critical to a building layout. It is also affected by the furniture layout, or other objects in the space such as columns, trees, or topographic changes.
Vertical circulation is how people move up and down within the building, so includes things like stairs, lifts, ramps, ladders and escalators which allow us to move from one level to another. In this guise, circulation is often overlapped with other functions, such as a lobby, atrium, or gallery, and is enhanced to a high level of architectural quality.
Issues of visibility, how crowds move, and clear escape paths are key. Private circulation accounts for the more intimate movements within the building, or the more ugly ones which require a degree of privacy. In a house this might be the back door, in a large building the back of house, staff offices or storage zones. The key circulation pathways should: The reason for these two rules of thumb is fairly obvious: But, once you've got these rules sorted, you're welcome to break them.
Sometimes for architectural reasons you'll want to interrupt a direct circulation path with an item of furniture or a change in level to define a change in place, make people slow down, or provide a focus point. Similarly, circulation doesn't necessarily have to follow the shortest distance between two points. Circulation can be choreographed, to add architectural interest. In this way, circulation is also intricately linked in with Programme, or what activities take place, another key Architectural Concept which we will touch on in this series.