What about Christian Jews or Jewish Christians?
The sacred Scriptures of Judaism consist of three groups of documents: the Law, from Judaism its basic understanding of God, his covenant relationship with. Though Jews and Christians have had a complicated and tense relationship, visited Israel in ; and issued a sweeping apology for past Church “sins. In the free eBook Paul: Jewish Law and Early Christianity, learn about the cultural They are being married in front of the portal of the Church.
Both religions agree that God shares both transcendent and immanent qualities. How these religions resolve this issue is where the religions differ. Christianity posits that God exists as a Trinity ; in this view God exists as three distinct persons who share a single divine essenceor substance.
In those three there is one, and in that one there are three; the one God is indivisible, while the three persons are distinct and unconfused, God the FatherGod the Sonand God the Holy Spirit. It teaches that God became especially immanent in physical form through the Incarnation of God the Son who was born as Jesus of Nazarethwho is believed to be at once fully God and fully human.
There are denominations self-describing as Christian who question one or more of these doctrines, however, see Nontrinitarianism. By contrast, Judaism sees God as a single entityand views trinitarianism as both incomprehensible and a violation of the Bible's teaching that God is one. It rejects the notion that Jesus or any other object or living being could be 'God', that God could have a literal 'son' in physical form or is divisible in any way, or that God could be made to be joined to the material world in such fashion.
Although Judaism provides Jews with a word to label God's transcendence Ein Sofwithout end and immanence Shekhinahin-dwellingthese are merely human words to describe two ways of experiencing God; God is one and indivisible.
Shituf A minority Jewish view, which appears in some[ which? This theology is referred to in Hebrew as Shituf literally "partnership" or "association". Although worship of a trinity is considered to be not different from any other form of idolatry for Jews, it may be an acceptable belief for non-Jews according to the ruling of some Rabbinic authorities[ who?
Right action[ edit ] Faith versus good deeds[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. November See also: Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification and Biblical law in Christianity Judaism teaches that the purpose of the Torah is to teach us how to act correctly.
God's existence is a given in Judaism, and not something that most authorities see as a matter of required belief. Although some authorities[ who? The quintessential verbal expression of Judaism is the Shema Yisraelthe statement that the God of the Bible is their God, and that this God is unique and one. The Commission accepted the report, recommended its study by Christians everywhere, and called for further research on such matters as the meaning of salvation and election and the nature of God in relation to the two ecclesiological metaphors of People of God and the Body of Christ.
Introduction There is a growing awareness in many churches today that an encounter with the Jews is essential. On various occasions in the past the World Council of Churches has condemned any form of anti-semitism.
It is, however, necessary to think through the theological implications and the complex questions bound up with the Church's relation to the Jewish people in a more explicit and systematic way. We hope that what follows here may be a contribution to such a study. We cannot pretend to offer more than that.
Christianity and Judaism
We are aware of the shortcomings of this statement, and particularly that differences of opinion among us, which we have not yet been able to resolve, impose limits on what we can say. However, what we offer is, notwithstanding its limitations, new in the history of the World Council. We hope that this statement will stimulate a continuing discussion and will pave the way for a deeper common understanding and eventually a common declaration.
Both in biblical and contemporary language the words "Israel" and "Jews" can have various meanings. To avoid misunderstanding, in this document we have used the term "Israel" only when referring to the people in Old and New Testament times; no present-day political reference is intended or implied.
When we speak about the people in post-biblical times we prefer to use the terms "Jews" or "Jewish people", the latter being a collective term designating the Jews all over the world. We find it hard to define in precise terms what it is that makes a Jew a Jew, though we recognize that both ethnic elements and religious traditions play a role. In drawing up this document we set out to answer two distinct questions which were put to us: The structure of this paper is to a great extent conditioned by this starting-point.
It should also be kept in mind that we speak as Christian theologians; we are conscious of the fact that theological statements often have political, sociological or economic implications, even if that is not intended. That consideration, however, cannot be a reason for silence; we merely ask that this paper may be judged on its theological merits.
In our discussions we constantly kept the biblical writings in mind and tried to understand our questions in the light of the Scriptures. We realized that the evidence of the Bible, both Old and New Testaments, is varied and complex, and that we are all in constant danger of arbitrarily excluding parts of it.
In re-thinking the place of the Jews in the history of salvation we should recognize that the question of Israel is very important in parts of the Gospels and the Pauline letters, but it seems to be less in evidence in other parts of the New Testament literature, though it is perhaps rarely entirely absent.
The problems of interpreting the biblical evidence in regard to this question are just as difficult as they are in regard to other significant theological issues. Being aware of the danger of building one's thinking upon particular proof-texts, we have refrained from pointing to specific verses.
We have tried, however, to be faithful to the overall meaning of the Bible and trust that the scriptural basis of what we say will be evident. Historical considerations The first community of Christians were Jews who had accepted Jesus as the Christ. They continued to belong to the Jewish communities and the relationship between them and their fellow-Jews was close, notwithstanding the tension that existed between them -- a tension caused by the fact that the Christian Jews believed that the fullness of time had come in Christ and in the outpouring of the Spirit and that they therefore came to know themselves to be found in one fellowship with Gentiles who also believed in God through Jesus Christ.
The two groups of Jews broke apart as the consequence of various facts: In the same period Christians of Gentile origin came greatly to outnumber the Jewish Christians. From this time on the history of Jews and Christians is one of ever increasing mutual estrangement. After Christianity became the accepted religion of the Roman state, the Jews were discriminated against and often even persecuted by the "Christian" state more often than not with ecclesiastical support.
As a consequence, the so-called "dialogues'' between Christian and Jewish theologians which were organized from time to time were never held on a footing of equality; the Jewish partners were not taken seriously. In the past the existence of Jews outside the church and their refusal to accept the Christian faith prompted little serious theological questioning in official church circles.
Christians generally thought about these questions in very stereotyped ways: Despite all this the separation between the Church and the Jewish people has never been absolute.
In the liturgy of the church many Jewish elements have been preserved. And when in the middle of the second century Marcion tried to cut all ties by rejecting the Old Testament as God's revelation and by clearing the New Testament as far as possible of all its Old Testament concepts and references, the Church, by holding fast to the Old Testament, testified to the continuity between the old and the new covenants.
She thereby in fact testified also to the common root and origin of the Church and the Jewish people, although this was not clearly realized; and only few Christians have been aware that this common root meant some kind of special relationship.
At the scholarly and theological level also there has always been contact between the two groups. In the Middle Ages especially, Christian theology and exegesis were strongly influenced by Jews, who for instance transmitted Aristotelian philosophy to them; the influence of Jewish mysticism upon Christian mystics, moreover, has been much stronger than is generally known. In the 16th century among Christians of the Western world a new awareness of their relationship with Jews arose, partly under the influence of humanism with its emphasis on the original biblical languages, partly because of the Reformation.
Protestant attitudes were, however, by no means always positive. In pietism a strong love and hope for the Jewish people awoke, which in the 18th and 19th century found expression in the many attempts to come into missionary contact with Jews. But even so, there was little change in the thinking by Christians generally about the Jews. The time of the Enlightenment, with its common move towards toleration, brought improvement in the position of the Jews, at least in Western Europe.
This happened in a cultural atmosphere in which there was a tendency to deny the particularity of the Jewish people. Outright anti-semitism, with its excesses and pogroms, seemed a thing of the past, although in most countries religions and social discrimination remained, the more insidious because it was often not fully conscious.
The Church and the Jewish People
It is only since the beginning of this century, and even more especially since the last war, that churches, and not merely various individual Christians, have begun to rethink more systematically the nature of their relationship to the Jews.
The main theological reason for this is probably the greater emphasis on biblical theology and the increased interest which the Old Testament in particular has received. It is self-evident that this emphasis was to a great extent caused by the preceding outbreak of anti-semitism in Germany and its rationalization on so-called Christian, ideological grounds. In the realm of biblical scholarship there is today increasing cooperation among Christians and Jews; many Christian theologians are aware of what they have learned from men like Rosenzweig, Buber and other Jewish scholars.
The question of what is meant by election and the irrevocability of God's love is being asked again in a new way. The biblically important concept of "covenant" has become more central, and the relationship between the "old" and the "new" covenant is being restudied.
In addition, Paul's wrestling with the baffling question of the disobedience of the greater part of his fellow-Jews has come up for consideration. Besides these theological grounds, two historical events in the last thirty years have caused churches to direct their thinking more than before to their relationship to the Jewish people. In Europe persecution has taken place, greater and more brutal than could have been thought possible in our time, in which some six million Jews were annihilated in the most terrible way, not because of their personal actions or beliefs, but because of the mere fact that they had Jewish grandparents.
The churches came to ask themselves whether this was simply the consequence of natural human wickedness or whether it had also another, theological dimension.
The second event was the creation of the State of Israel. This is of tremendous importance for the great majority of Jews; it has meant for them a new feeling of self-assurance and security. But this same event has also brought suffering and injustice to Arab people. We find it impossible to give a unanimous evaluation of its formation and of all the events connected with it, and therefore in this study do not make further mention of it.
We realize, however, especially in view of the changed situation in the Middle East as a result of the war of Junethat also the question of the present state of Israel, and of its theological significance, if any, has to be taken up. Theological considerations We believe that God formed the people of Israel.
There are certainly many factors of common history, ethnic background and religion, which can explain its coming into existence, but according to Old Testament faith as a whole, it was God's own will and decision which made this one distinct people with its special place in history. God is the God of the whole earth and of all nations, but he chose this particular people to be the bearer of a particular promise and to act as his covenant-partner and special instrument.
He made himself known specifically to Israel, and showed this people what his will is for men on earth. Bound to him in love and obedience, it was called to live as God wants his people to live. In this way it was to become, as it were, a living revelation to others, in order that they also might come to know, trust, love and obey God. In dealing with Israel, God had in view the other nations; this was the road by which he came to them. In order words, in his love for Israel his love for mankind was manifested; in its election, Israel, without losing its own particularity, represented the others.
In the Old Testament Israel is shown to be an imperfect instrument; again and again it was untrue to its calling so that it often obscured rather than manifested God's will on earth.
But even in its disobedience it was a witness to God, a witness to his judgment, which however terrible was seen as a form of his grace, for in punishment God was seeking to purify his people and to bring them back to himself; a witness also to his faithfulness and love, which did not let his people go, even when they turned away from him.
Through him we see into the very heart of God, in him we see what it really means to say that God is the God of the covenant and loves man to the very end. As be became the man who was the perfect instrument of God's purpose, he took upon himself the vocation of his people. Churches are bound by the principle of accepting the self-definition of other religious groups.
Those that call themselves Messianic Jews, Hebrew Christians or Jews for Jesus have to be accepted in their own right. However, such groups should not be considered to be representative of the Jewish community nor are they representative of the Christian community. Church-Jewish relationships depend upon direct relations between the Churches and Jewish groups. Jewish conversions to Christianity have a very long and checkered history.
These conversions have seldom guaranteed full acceptance of the converted by the Christian community and not even protected them from antisemitism. In recent years the churches associated with the World Council of Churches have moved away from mission and conversion in interfaith relations seeking dialogue between equal partners.
Some evangelical or fundamentalist churches still seek to evangelize Jews or they support groups that do so. The purpose of the Jewish-Christian dialogue presented on these pages is mutual understanding and learning, not conversion.
The Jewish community considers converted Jews to be Christians For Judaism, the matter of conversion is quite clear: If a Jew comes to accept the divinity of Jesus, or a trinitarian understanding of God, or initiation into the Christian community through Christian baptism, these things are seen as antithetical to Judaism.
Converted Jews have argued that even secular or atheistic Jews are still considered members of the Jewish community, why not Jews who differ from other religious Jews only through their faith in Jesus Christ?
Such a position may have been possible in the first century CE before the Church was firmly established as a Gentile and anti-Judaic community. After two-thousand years of intense enmity between the two communities and after they have developed separately as distinct religions, they can at best become equal partners, at worst they will remain contradictions of each other. Some Christian theologians have cautiously expressed the hope that converted Jews could one day become a bridge between the two communities.
For Jews this is an unacceptable idea. And it is questionable what Christians would gain from conversations with people who clearly would want to represent both communities. The history of Christian mission to Jews In past centuries Jews were often forcibly baptized under threat of torture or death. Jewish children were taken away from their parents to be brought up in Christian homes. Jewish congregations were sometimes ordered to listen to Christian preachers in their own synagogues.