The use of alcohol and drugs can negatively affect all aspects of a person's life, strong role in the relationship to crime and other social problems. million juvenile arrests had substance abuse and addiction involvement. Exploring the relationship between cannabis use and crime among adolescents with 20 young people with a history of regular cannabis use and involvement in Australian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Canberra, 28th. Early studies of juvenile delinquents, drug use, and crime include a series of do not show any clear causal relationship between drug use and delinquency.
Confounding — crime and drug use share a common set of cause s: The underlying causal mechanism s is likely to be more complex than these explanations suggest Bennett and Holloway,Seddon, Our previous work has highlighted the need for longitudinal studies with a non-drug user comparison group to examine the natural history of drug use and offending Hayhurst et al.
Current evidence about the development of drug use and offending is constrained by design flaws in published studies, particularly the absence of suitable control groups. Our recent review of the evidence base on pathways through opiate use and offending Hayhurst et al. A typical example is the study by Anglin and Speckartwhich examined the criminal records and clinical data of male methadone patients. Most studies which make this comparison find that offending rates are substantially higher after drug-use initiation Hayhurst et al.
In general population samples, offending rates tend to peak during late adolescence Sweeten et al.
- Substance use and criminality among juveniles-under-enquiry in New Delhi
To disentangle the age effects from those of drug-use initiation, it is crucial to control for age, using an appropriate control group. This paper reports a retrospective cohort analysis to compare the historical offending trajectory of offenders according to drug test result. Prior analysis on this cohort considered offending rates in the two years prior to drug-test and found that testing positive for opiates was a greater predictor of excess offending than testing positive for cocaine.
We therefore focus on opiate use, by comparing the historical offending trajectory of offenders who test positive for opiate use opiate positives with a control group who test negative for both opiate and cocaine use test-negatives.
This comparison is performed for all offences committed and for three offence categories serious acquisitive, non-serious acquisitive, violent whilst controlling for age and birth cohort, and separately by gender. Information about the age of first opiate use is used to consider whether the contrast between opiate positives and test-negatives is similar both before, and after, the initiation of opiate use. The following hypotheses are considered: The initiation of opiate use exacerbates the level of offending compared to negative testers; 3.
The effect of opiate-use initiation is different for males and females. The effect of opiate-use initiation differs by crime type. Data The analysis cohort was identified from those who received a saliva drug test for opiate and cocaine metabolites following arrest, as recorded by the Drug Test Record DTRover the period 1st April to 31st March This cohort has been described in detail elsewhere Pierce et al.
The age range restriction was applied since the profile of individuals whose offending persists into their 40s may be atypical Moffitt,Moffitt and Caspi, From the analysis cohort, we define opiate-positive cases as those who, on arrest, tested positive for opiates and negative tester controls as those who tested negative for opiates and cocaine.
Data are retained on positive and negative saliva test results, test dates, reason for test and basic demographic information. An additional fifteen qualitative interviews were conducted with a total of 20 participants. Results from study 1 showed younger participants were more likely to have recently used cannabis, initiated at a younger age and to have recently received more criminal charges.
Exploring the relationship between cannabis use and crime among adolescents
A mental health diagnosis was a significant predictor of recent charges among detainees whose past year illicit drug use was limited to cannabis-only. Results from the second study showed that use of cannabis prior to involvement in crime was found to influence the speed of progression from first to regular offending. In the final study, the immediate social environment was found to play a strong role in the initiation, acceptance and normalisation of cannabis use and offending.
National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre. Crime and Justice Challenges in the 21st Century: It is to be noted that the categories of crimes mentioned in Table 2 are as per the juvenile case records of the juveniles who were booked for different crimes and are in accordance with the terminology used by the Juvenile Criminal Justice System in India.
Table 2 Open in a separate window As for other types of criminal behavior, there is an increasing trend noted in the incidence of burglary with an alarming figure of Similarly, cannabis intake was found to be high However, intake of psychotropic drugs was common only with crimes of more serious nature such as murder, rape, snatching, and burglary viz-a-viz other drug-crime correlations.
It also explores the predictor variables that would contribute toward an explanatory model of sociodemographic correlates with criminality and identifies contextual factors related to substance use and criminality among the sample studied.
Sociodemographic variables as predictors of substance use and criminal behavior Behavior is learned and is influenced by the surroundings one lives in. The study also establishes a causal relationship between neglect in childhood and subsequent substance use and criminal behavior which can be supported by existing literature. Researches indicate that children who have been physically abused or neglected are more likely than others to commit violent crimes later in life.
Family condition leading to crime is seen to be an important factor in this study. Family history of crime and history of substance use in the family were found to have a positive correlation with substance use and criminal behavior among the sample studied. Therefore, parents with a criminal history are seen to be a contributing factor in the juvenile's initiation to crime, and the patterns of crime are transmitted from one generation to another. Baker and Mednick [ 18 ] found that youth aged between 18 and 23 with a history of criminality in the family were 3.
Most juveniles, in the present study, reported to have grown up with emotionally broken families and had witnessed parental fighting and domestic violence as they grew up. Results also highlight that the presence of abusive father, physical abuse, presence of a stepparent, and substance use in the family are seen to be common family factors which may act as predictive variables in the antisocial behavior among the sample studied.
Substance use and criminality among juveniles-under-enquiry in New Delhi
Paschall [ 19 ] states that exposure to violence in the home and elsewhere increases a child's risk for involvement in violent behavior later in life. Although majority of the juveniles-under-enquiry fall in the preadolescent category 10—15 years as compared to adolescent category 15—18 yearsthey were either educated up to primary level or had no formal education. Despite stringent antichild labor laws in India, child labor is still in vogue and consisted of the highest proportion of the sample studied.
Current trends in juvenile substance use in India Substance use is an emerging health concern among the juveniles in India. The trends of substance use among juveniles are widely varied when compared to western data. NIH statistics [ 20 ] reported decline in the rate of tobacco use among teens and an increase in marijuana use; however, the present study reflected the highest consumption of tobacco followed by cannabis among the juveniles-under-enquiry in the sample studied.
This may be attributed to the easy availability of cheaper tobacco goods in India, such as Beedis. Those who use cannabis also use tobacco as a substance of choice. Contrary to the report of NIH indicating decline in the use of inhalants, there is an increasing evidence of inhalants use among the Indian children. This could be attributed to the stringent policies for the sale of alcohol to the youth in New Delhi.
Furthermore, consumption of psychotropic drugs was noted to be relatively lesser compared to the NIH data of USA. While higher rate of early onset of opioid use might be attributed to association with older peers who abuse the substance.
Substance use, criminality, and juvenile justice Many juveniles involved with the juvenile justice system experience multiple personal, educational, and family problems.Juvenile Delinquency (DRUGS)
Substance use and involvement in criminal behavior are clearly interrelated. These are the major dependent variables and clearly overlap. Greater the involvement in substance use, more severe is the involvement in delinquency, and vice versa.