Scientific Name, Epinotia aporema [TAX]. Lineage, cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Protostomia;. Epinotia aporema granulovirus (EpapGV) is a fast killing betabaculovirus that infects the bean shoot borer (E. aporema) and is a promising. A granulovirus (GV) isolated from Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)—a major soybean pest—was studied in terms of its main.

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The male forewing is mostly brown to reddish brown with a pale dorsum and large costal patch. Mating occurs at night, and it apkrema tightly correlated in time with the emission of pheromones by virgin females.

Crocidosema aporema originated apoream Costa Rica, and is now widely distributed throughout South America. Detection and kinetic analysis of Epinotia aporema granulovirus in its lepidopteran host by real-time PCR.

Characterization of a granulovirus isolated from Epinotia aporema Wals. The frequency of mating can also vary among closely related species, which may be the result of different ecologically-driven balances between direct or genetic benefits obtained by the females at mating, and the various costs associated with it, such as predation or the transmission of diseases Drummond The behaviour of each male was observed continuously during 20 min, recording the first arm chosen and the number of entrances in both arms.

Epinotia aporema

Prior to mating, a sequence of events was observed in which the quiescent male responded to the calling female by approaching her while fanning his wings in the upright position, male and female then made contact with their antennae, and immediately turned to engage in mating Fig 4.


Females were kept individually throughout the experiment in covered, transparent plastic containers 10 cm high, 7 cm diameter. Females adopted a characteristic calling posture, extruding the pheromone gland from the tip of the abdomen. Considering the number of entrances to the calling female and control arms, the males preferred the former, entering an average of 3. Both males and females increase their flight activity upon the onset of the scotophase, and quickly return to quiescence at the beginning of the photophase.

In soybean, the larvae feed on vegetative plant parts affecting the normal growth of the plant. Tortricidae in La Plata, Argentina. Most of the couples mated once throughout the experiment, between the third and sixth night and during the middle of the dark phase. Rev Soc Entomol Argent Reproductive behaviour of Crocidosema Epinotia aporema Walsingham Lepidoptera: Larval feeding leads to reduced plant height, drying of terminal shoots, a decrease in lower pod insertion, and damage to flowers, all of which can result in reduced yields in soybean and other crops.

For instance, species with a delay in the onset of reproductive behaviour may need to migrate prior to mating in response to habitat deterioration McNeil et al No pulsation of the gland or obvious wing fluttering was observed. Our basic findings concerning the mating behaviour of C. Crocidosema aporema adults were obtained from two laboratory populations that were kept in similar conditions in our laboratories in Brazil and Uruguay.

New York, Academic Press, p. The parameters recorded were the time of mating onset and its length, age of the mating female and the number of mates per couple. Crocidosema aporema is distributed throughout Central and South America. There are no recent U. Females lay eggs on glabrous nodes of the soybean plant or other leguminous host.


Such variation may respond to various predictable ecological conditions, to which different species are adapted. Alzugaray R, Ribeiro A Insectos en pasturas, p.

Multiplex PCR and quality control of Epinotia aporema granulovirus production.

Crocidosema aporema Walsingham Tortricidae: For information on the larva of Crocidosema aporemaplease consult apordma fact sheet and keys on LepIntercept – An identification resource for intercepted Lepidoptera larvae. No courtship behaviour was observed when the males reached the mesh that separated the olfactometer from the tube holding the aporrema female.

The bean shoot borer, Epinotia aporema Lep. The Brazilian culture was obtained from individuals collected in Fazenda Rio Grande Parana and the Uruguayan insects were originally collected in La Estanzuela Colonia. The first step in order to develop a pheromone-based monitoring tool for C.

Here we describe the posture of C. Males have aporemz secondary sexual structures including a forewing costal fold and black scaling on the hindwing. Services on Demand Journal.

Epinotia aporema granulovirus

In most cases it was possible to observe the putative pheromone gland extruded from the tip of the abdomen Fig 1. Tortricidae in apple orchards treated with sex pheromone.

Tortricidae in La Plata, Argentina.

Larval Morphology For information on the larva of Crocidosema aporemaplease consult the fact sheet and keys epijotia LepIntercept – An identification resource for intercepted Lepidoptera larvae.