Beatrix Mita Sadipun studies History of Accounting Thought and Kesehatan. Abstract. Background: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an obstetrical IUGR are reviewed, and a management strategy is suggested. Prolonged rupture of membranes. Familial predisposition. Maternal hypertension or toxemia. Cesarean section without labor. IUGR/SGA. Perinatal asphyxia.

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A calculated gestational age by ultrasound must be therefore considered as an estimate and must take into account the range of possibilities.

Genetic influence on prolonged gestation: Fetal heart rate changes and uterine activity during coitus. Effect of membrane maakalah at term pregnancy on duration of pregnancy and labor induction: However, a Cochrane review concluded that the role of sexual intercourse as a method of induction of labour is uncertain and that further studies of sufficient power are needed to assess its value Kavanagh et al.

J Miss State Med Assoc. Oligohydramnios may result from feto-placental insufficiency or increased renal artery resistance Oz et al.

Postterm pregnancy

Relationship between stillbirth and gestational age Yudkin et al. Concurrently the rise in maternal plasma progesterone concentrations that occurs across gestation slows at the end of pregnancy or even falls. Prospective risk of stillbirth. Am J Obstst Gynecol. The management of postterm pregnancy constitutes a challenge to clinicians; knowing who to induce, who will respond to induction and who will require a caesarean section CS.


A Cochrane systematic review in found a similar reduction in the overall rates of induction of labour for postterm pregnancy OR, 0.

Postterm pregnancy

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Macrosomia — maternal characteristics and infant complications. A clinical trial of induction of labor versus expectant management in post-term pregnancy. Induction of labour in postterm women with previous caesarean section Vaginal birth after caesarean maklaah VBAC has been promoted as a reasonable alternative to elective repeat caesarean delivery for some women. Placental production of the igr corticotrophin releasing hormone CRH has been related to the length of gestation McLean et al.

Changing obstetric practices associated with decreasing incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome.

Amniotic fluid volume as a predictor of fetal distress in postterm pregnancy. Int J Feto-Maternal Med. Postterm pregnancy is associated with significant risks to the mother. Induction of labour in women with a favourable cervix Clinicians are less concerned about IOL in women with a favourable cervix; these women are more likely to go into spontaneous labour on their own, and if induced, induction is makwlah likely to succeed.

Antepartum stillbirth at and beyond term weeks gestation is a major public health problem accounting for a greater contribution to perinatal mortality than either deaths from complications of makalag or the sudden infant death syndrome Cotzias et al.

Taken together, these data suggest that routine induction at 41 weeks of gestation has fetal benefit without incurring the additional maternal risks of a higher rate of caesarean delivery Rand et al.


A national register-based study, The main concern around induction of labour in postterm low risk pregnancies is related to uterine overstimulation, fetal distress, failure of induction and increase in caesarean section rates. These data also suggested that oestrogen activation in human parturition is mediated at the functional level by an increase in myometrial oestrogen responsiveness.

Uigr cervical ripening prior to induction in these cases appears to have some advantage in terms of outcome regardless of parity ikgr method of induction. A randomized controlled trial.

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Sexual intercourse for cervical ripening and induction of labour. Clinicians are less concerned about IOL in women with a favourable cervix; these women are more likely to go into spontaneous labour iuhr their own, and if induced, induction is more likely to succeed.

However, there is no evidence that IOL as a preventative measure in these cases is associated with makslah reduction in complication rates or improvement in perinatal outcome ACOG, However, digital cervical assessment remains subjective and could lack reproducibility.

It seems therefore that IOL in this group could be less cost effective as the intervention might not be required in the first place.