Group Cohesiveness: Meaning and Its Consequences (With Diagram)
Group cohesiveness is one of the characteristic features of the groups, which is Now we will explain the answers to these questions in detail: Studies consistently show that the relationship of cohesiveness and productivity depends on the. Groups representative of three degrees of cohesiveness were .. between cohesiveness and productivity will be more fully described here. Group cohesiveness generally improves group productivity and job who may have a permanent reporting relationship to a division manager.
Group Cohesiveness in Business Management Trends In the 21st century, both business management theorists and business executives have developed management strategies that encourage group cohesiveness because of the productivity advantage and its related benefits, including better employee retention rates. Management recognition of the advantage of group cohesiveness has prompted organizational innovations that encourage it.
Many businesses, even those with clearly hierarchical organizational structures with a CEO at the top and hourly workers at the bottom have begun introducing secondary organizational structures that encourage group cohesiveness within the overall structure.
These secondary structures allow, among other benefits, a greater sense of identity. One of the more influential of these newer organizational structures in business is the matrix structure. A matrix-structured company, for instance, may have both permanent divisions and, independent of those divisions, various ongoing projects with structures that exist only for the length of the project.
An employee in a matrix structure who may have a permanent reporting relationship to a division manager, can be "on loan" to a project, and for the duration of that project will report to a project manager instead. Selection for a project makes the employee feel a sense of individuality that can be stifled in hierarchical management, and also a sense of allegiance to the project group. Since projects generally have well-defined short or intermediate term goals, project workers also tend to feel they are part of an elite team with members working successfully together to achieve these goals and having personal satisfaction when they're reached.
This indicates that cohesion can improve group decision-making in times of stress. Attachment theory has also asserted that adolescents with behavioral problems do not have close interpersonal relationships or have superficial ones. The theory of groupthink suggests that the pressures hinder the group from critically thinking about the decisions it is making. Giordano has suggested that this is because people within a group frequently interact with one another and create many opportunities for influence.
It is also because a person within a group perceive other members as similar to themselves and are thus, more willing to give into conformity pressures. Another reason is because people value the group and are thus, more willing to give into conformity pressures to maintain or enhance their relationships.
Illegal activities have been stemmed from conformity pressures within a group. Haynie found that the degree to which a group of friends engaged in illegal activities was a predictor of an individual's participation in the illegal activity.
Group Cohesiveness and Productivity in Management - IIBM LMS
This was even after the individual's prior behavior was controlled for and other controls were set in place. Furthermore, those with friends who all engaged in illegal activities were most likely to engage in illegal activities themselves.
Another study found that adolescents with no friends did not engage in as many illegal activities as those with at least one friend. They wanted to test whether learning would be better if children studied with peers they liked than peers they didn't. They found that children with high IQ performed better on learning tests when they learnt in high cohesive groups than low cohesive groups.
For low IQ children, however, the cohesiveness factor made little difference.
Still, there was a slight tendency for low IQ children to perform better in high cohesive groups. The researchers believed that if children worked with other students whom they liked, they would more likely have a greater drive to learn than if they had neutral or negative attitudes towards the group.
Public policy[ edit ] Social cohesion has become an important theme in British social policy in the period since the disturbances in Britain's Northern mill towns OldhamBradford and Burnley in the summer of see Oldham riotsBradford riotsBurnley riots. In investigating these, academic Ted Cantle drew heavily on the concept of social cohesion, and the New Labour government particularly then Home Secretary David Blunkett in turn widely promoted the notion. The report shows that material conditions are fundamental to social cohesion, particularly employmentincomehealtheducation and housing.
Relations between and within communities suffer when people lack work and endure hardship, debtanxietylow self-esteemill-health, poor skills and bad living conditions.
These basic necessities of life are the foundations of a strong social fabric and important indicators of social progress. The second basic tenet of cohesion is social ordersafety and freedom from fear, or "passive social relationships". Tolerance and respect for other people, along with peace and security, are hallmarks of a stable and harmonious urban society. The third dimension refers to the positive interactions, exchanges and networks between individuals and communities, or "active social relationships".
Such contacts and connections are potential resources for places since they offer people and organisations mutual support, information, trust and credit of various kinds. The fourth dimension is about the extent of social inclusion or integration of people into the mainstream institutions of civil society.
It also includes people's sense of belonging to a city and the strength of shared experiences, identities and values between those from different backgrounds. Lastly, social equality refers to the level of fairness or disparity in access to opportunities or material circumstances, such as income, health or quality of lifeor in future life chances.
As a result, members tend to like each other and perceive themselves as similar. These characteristics lead members to be relatively dependent on the group for satisfaction and, thus, they are susceptible to being influenced. For example, if any member is getting involved in organisational politics for enhancing his personal goals, the group might put social pressure on him and make him comply with the group norms. Cohesiveness and success are mutually dependent upon each other.
Cohesiveness makes the goal achievement easier and goal achievement adds to success. The reason for this relationship is that higher degree of cohesiveness leads to high degree of communication, participation and conformity to group norms.
Such coordinated efforts result in agreement about the goals to be achieved, the methods of achieving them and finally achieving the final goals. Members of cohesive groups communicate with each other more than the members of non-cohesive groups.
Because the members share common ideologies, goals, backgrounds or attitudes, they are inclined to greater communicativeness. Such communication is reinforcing as it tends to foster and cement positive social relations as well as depth in personal relationships. Members of cohesive groups are more satisfied as compared to members of non-cohesive groups. Thus is understandable because if members are not satisfied they will leave the group and join some other group.
Members are more satisfied due to so many factors which include friendliness, respect, support, achievement, protection and a feeling of security. Cohesiveness may contribute to increased productivity because: Studies consistently show that the relationship of cohesiveness and productivity depends on the performance related norms established by the group.
If performance related norms are high, a cohesive group will be more productive than will a less cohesive group. But if cohesiveness is high and performance norms are low, productivity will be low. If cohesiveness is low and performance norms are high, productivity increases but less than in high cohesiveness-high norms situation. Where cohesiveness and performance related norms are both low, productivity will tend to fall into the low to moderate range.
These conclusions are summarized in the following figure: The worst situation for the manager is a highly cohesive group with low performance norms.