Chester A. Arthur - Wikipedia
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More important, Hamer and Jesse Grant were political enemies. But Jesse swallowed his pride and wrote to Hamer, hoping that his former friend would remember how close they had once been. The application was to have lifelong ramifications for Grant: He then wrote to Jesse, burying the bitter feud: Ulysses knew none of this and protested the appointment when he heard of it. He told his father that he thought he would not go.
He arrived, a little more than one week later, on the bluffs above the Hudson, to see his name posted with those of the others of the class of R It was then, and still is, a tradition at West Point that en- tering plebes receive a nickname.
Grant would ever issue would change that name. Among his closest friends, from his plebe year forward, Ulysses S. Grant entered West Point as the smallest cadet in his class. He stood barely five feet one, and he weighed just pounds. He struggled with his studies, but he rarely broke the academy rules, and he seemed to get along well with the upperclass officers.
His class of seventy-seven comprised mostly boys from the South and the Northeast, with only a scattering of midwesterners. Grant endured his plebe year and stood aside when others protested, or openly rebelled, or were expelled for fighting or complaining. In that first year he never once received a demerit for disobedience or disrespect, a rarity among cadets in any age.
Lee were legends at West Point. Grant was a plodding enigma.
John Quincy Adams
Grant finished his first year near the bottom of his class, but he had come further than anyone dared imagine. All the while, amid the sometimes vicious physical hazing and challenges of West Point mathematics, Grant read the newspapers, carefully following the congressional bill aimed at closing the academy. Grant hoped the bill would pass and that West Point would be closed. All he wanted to do his first year, as he later remembered, was go back to Ohio to become a farmer or, better yet, one of those worldly traders on a Mississippi steamboat.
This fantasy aside, by the end of his first year as a cadet, Grant was beginning to like West Point. When General Winfield Scott came to visit, Grant was impressed, writing effusively about the medal-bedecked American hero, and imagined himself in his place, reviewing the Corps of Cadets.
Grant did not need help it is unlikely he would have asked for it if he hadand by the end of his first year he was mastering the course and rising through the class ranks. As a result of his strong academic standing, Grant could now and then take some time to reflect on his surround- ings and the history that filled the Hudson Valley, whose river shone from his room. Rather, his natural shyness meant that he had trouble making close friends, so he spent much of his free time reading novels from the academy library—an eclectic mix of James Fenimore Cooper, Washington Irving, and Walter Scott.
Grant survived his first year and entered his second year at the midpoint of his class. He excelled at mathematics and he discovered art. His talent in this came as the result of his instruction in technical drafting, a requirement in the engineering-focused academy where cadets were expected to know the minute details of constructing and maintaining battlements. Grant loved drafting and converted that love into drawings and watercolors. He was an adept artist with a keen eye.
He struggled in French, but he made it through the course as best he could, knowing that his scores in math would keep him near the middle of his class.
Grant and Twain
By the end of his second year, it was apparent to everyone at West Point that while Grant did not stand out in any single subject, he was a solid cadet with an adept mind. He was also an exceptional horseman; he may well have been the best horseman to have ever graduated from West Point. His talent with horses became apparent his sophomore year, and his reputation grew, so that by the time he was an upperclassman, he would be called on repeatedly to show his skills.
He held the West Point high-jumping record for twenty-five years. Grant and Dent became good friends, in spite of their often bitter arguments about slavery, and Dent invited Grant to visit him and his family after they graduated. The once shy boy from Ohio began to rebel and at one point was confined to his quarters for two weeks for disrespect. This only deepened his doubts about leading a military life, and he pledged that while he would fulfill his commitment, he would not stay in the military.
Now, he said, he would quit the army and return to West Point as a professor of mathematics. Grant welcomed the end of his time at the academy, and while his class is forever remembered for graduating the greatest leader of the Civil War and two-time presidentGrant himself later commented on the remarkable plebes who came to the academy when he was a senior. The class ofwhich graduated four years after Grant, included among their num- ber some of the most storied of Union commanders: The southern contingent was nearly as legendary: But all of this was in the future.
For now, Grant had to be satisfied with a simple commission in the infantry. While he graduated twenty-first in his class, an extraordinary accomplishment for an undersized and indifferently educated boy from Ohio, Grant did not stand high enough in the class ranks to be able to choose his branch of service.
He would have preferred the cavalry and requested that he be assigned as an officer in the dragoons but, inwas ordered to serve as a brevet second lieutenant in the Fourth Infantry, which was commanded by Richard S. Ewell, a future corps commander in Robert E. After a short time at home Jesse had since moved his family from Georgetown to Bethel, a short distance awayhe reported for duty at Jefferson Barracks, a sprawling and dusty military reservation just outside St.
He had his sights set on the future, but it was not the future that the army intended: All through these first years in uniform, he pined for a simpler life—as a professor, or farmer, or river trader. R As Grant suspected, and feared, life as a brevet second lieutenant in the U. Grant did the best he could to keep his mind focused on his work throughout the autumn ofbut he chafed at army regulations.
Home seemed far away: The nation was at peace, and even the debate over slavery seemed to abate. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant met and worked with each other during the Mexican—American War. Close observations of their commanders constituted a learning process for both Lee and Grant. During this time, his service was interrupted by other duties, among them surveying and updating maps in Florida. Insearching for a leader for his filibuster expedition, he approached Jefferson Davis, then a United States senator.
Davis declined and suggested Lee, who also declined. Both decided it was inconsistent with their duties. West Point and Texas The s were a difficult time for Lee, with his long absences from home, the increasing disability of his wife, troubles in taking over the management of a large slave plantation, and his often morbid concern with his personal failures.
His wife occasionally came to visit. Lee improved the buildings and courses and spent much time with the cadets. Custis Lee graduated infirst in his class. It meant leaving the Engineering Corps and its sequence of staff jobs for the combat command he truly wanted. Arlington plantation and the Custis slaves Mary Custis's inheritance in Christ ChurchAlexandria, where the Lees worshiped Inhis father-in-law George Washington Parke Custis died, creating a serious crisis when Lee took on the burden of executing the will.
Custis's will encompassed vast landholdings and hundreds of slaves balanced against massive debts, and required Custis's former slaves "to be emancipated by my executors in such manner as to my executors may seem most expedient and proper, the said emancipation to be accomplished in not exceeding five years from the time of my decease. Lee's cruelty on the Arlington plantation nearly led to a slave revolt, since many of the slaves had been given to understand that they were to be made free as soon as Custis died, and protested angrily at the delay.
On June 24,the anti-slavery newspaper New York Daily Tribune published two anonymous letters dated June 19,  and June 21, each claiming to have heard that Lee had the Norrises whipped, and each going so far as to claim that the overseer refused to whip the woman but that Lee took the whip and flogged her personally. Lee privately wrote to his son Custis that "The N. Tribune has attacked me for my treatment of your grandfather's slaves, but I shall not reply.
He has left me an unpleasant legacy. Norris stated that after they had been captured, and forced to return to Arlington, Lee told them that "he would teach us a lesson we would not soon forget. Norris claimed that Lee encouraged the whipping, and that when the overseer refused to do it, called in the county constable to do it instead.
Unlike the anonymous letter writers, he does not state that Lee himself whipped any of the slaves. According to Norris, Lee "frequently enjoined [Constable] Williams to 'lay it on well,' an injunction which he did not fail to heed; not satisfied with simply lacerating our naked flesh, Gen.
Lee then ordered the overseer to thoroughly wash our backs with brinewhich was done. According to the interview, Norris was sent to Richmond in January "from which place I finally made my escape through the rebel lines to freedom.
Robert E. Lee - Wikipedia
They broadly agree that Lee had a group of escaped slaves recaptured, and that after recapturing them he hired them out off of the Arlington plantation as a punishment; but they disagree over the likelihood that Lee flogged them, and over the charge that he personally whipped Mary Norris.
InDouglas S. Freeman described them as "Lee's first experience with the extravagance of irresponsible antislavery agitators" and asserted that "There is no evidence, direct or indirect, that Lee ever had them or any other Negroes flogged. The usage at Arlington and elsewhere in Virginia among people of Lee's station forbade such a thing.
Leefound the claims that Lee had personally whipped Mary Norris "extremely unlikely," but found it not at all unlikely that Lee had ordered the runaways whipped: Although it was supposed to be applied only in a calm and rational manner, overtly physical domination of slaves, unchecked by law, was always brutal and potentially savage.
It seems incongruously out of character for Lee to have whipped a slave woman himself, particularly one stripped to the waist, and that charge may have been a flourish added by the two correspondents; it was not repeated by Wesley Norris when his account of the incident was published in While Lee protested he had sympathetic feelings for blacks, they were subordinate to his own racial identity.
While both Robert and his wife Mary Lee were disgusted with slavery, they also defended it against Abolitionist demands for immediate emancipation for all enslaved. Parke Custis freed his slaves in his will. Foreign policy, — Cleveland was a committed non-interventionist who had campaigned in opposition to expansion and imperialism. He refused to promote the previous administration's Nicaragua canal treaty, and generally was less of an expansionist in foreign relations.
Bayardnegotiated with Joseph Chamberlain of the United Kingdom over fishing rights in the waters off Canada, and struck a conciliatory note, despite the opposition of New England 's Republican Senators.
Endicott to recommend a new coastal fortification system for the United States. Most of the Board's recommendations were implemented, and by27 locations were defended by over 70 forts. Endicott also proposed to Congress a system of examinations for Army officer promotions.
Although completion of the four steel-hulled warships begun under the previous administration was delayed due to a corruption investigation and subsequent bankruptcy of their building yard, these ships were completed in a timely manner in naval shipyards once the investigation was over.
These ships included the "second-class battleships " Maine and Texasdesigned to match modern armored ships recently acquired by South American countries from Europe, such as the Brazilian battleship Riachuelo.
Constitutionwhich guaranteed voting rights to African Americans. Dawes wrote the Dawes Actwhich Cleveland signed into law. Cleveland viewed Native Americans as wards of the statesaying in his first inaugural address that "[t]his guardianship involves, on our part, efforts for the improvement of their condition and enforcement of their rights.
It ultimately weakened the tribal governments and allowed individual Indians to sell land and keep the money. Army, to investigate the matter.
In the daughter of Cleveland's friend Oscar Folsom visited him in Washington. When she returned to school, President Cleveland received her mother's permission to correspond with her, and they were soon engaged to be married.
This marriage was unusual, since Cleveland was the executor of Oscar Folsom's estate and had supervised Frances's upbringing after her father's death; nevertheless, the public took no exception to the match.