Glaucus | Greek mythology | badz.info
Glaucus and Diomedes meet in No man's land. Diomedes asks Glaucus about his lineage because he is afraid to fight another divinity, citing the story of. Bk VI Agamemnon kills Adrastus; Bk VI Helenus asks Hector to urge the City to pray; Bk VI Glaucus meets Diomedes and tells his lineage. 'STRANGE MEETING': DIOMEDES AND GLAUCUS. IN ILIAD By BYRON HARRIES. Two men meet on a battlefield; it is getting late, towards the close of a .
I ween that at break of day, he shall be among the first to fall and many another of his comrades round him. Would that I were as sure of being immortal and never growing old, and of being worshipped like Athena and Apollo, as I am that this day will bring evil to the Argives. In spite of careful watch, Diomedes managed to launch an attack upon the sleeping Trojans.The Iliad -- BOOK 6: THE EPISODES OF GLAUCUS AND DIOMED, AND OF HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE
Hector was vanquished by Diomedes yet again and it was Diomedes that ended up being worshipped as an immortal. Book IX[ edit ] Agamemnon started shedding tears and proposed to abandon the war for good because Zeus was supporting the Trojans. Diomedes pointed out that this behavior was inappropriate for a leader like Agamemnon. He also declared that he will never leave the city unvanquished for the gods were originally with them.
This speech signifies the nature of Homeric tradition where fate and divine interventions have superiority over human choices.
Diomedes believed that Troy was fated to fall and had absolute and unconditional faith in victory. However, this was one of the two instances where Diomedes' opinion was criticized by Nestor. He then criticized Diomedes for not making any positive proposal to replace Agamemnon's opinion — a failure which Nestor ascribed to his youth. Nestor believed in the importance of human choices and proposed to change Achilles' mind by offering many gifts.
This proposal was approved by both Agamemnon and Odysseus. The embassy failed because Achilles himself had more faith in his own choices than fate or divine interventions. He threatened to leave Troy, never to return believing that this choice will enable him to live a long life.
Diomedes said, "Let Achilles stay or leave if he wishes to, but he will fight when the time comes. While the others were sleeping inside their tents, king Diomedes was seen outside his tent clad in his armour sleeping upon an ox skin, already well-prepared for any problem he may encounter at night.
During the Achaean council held, Agamemnon asked for a volunteer to spy on the Trojans. Again, it was Diomedes who stepped forward. The son of Tydeus explained "If another will go with me, I could do this in greater confidence and comfort. When two men are together, one of them may see some opportunity which the other has not caught sight of; if a man is alone he is less full of resource, and his wit is weaker.
Agamemnon put Diomedes in charge of the mission and asked him to choose a companion himself. The hero instantly selected Odysseus for he was loved by Athena and was quick witted. Although Odysseus had deserted Diomedes in the battlefield that very day, instead of criticizing him, the latter praised his bravery in front of others.
Odysseus' words hinted that he actually did not wish to be selected. Meanwhile, in a similar council held by Hector, not a single prince or king would volunteer to spy on Achaeans. Finally Hector managed to send Dolon, a good runner, after making a false oath promising him Achilles' horses after the victory.
On their way to the Trojan camp, Diomedes and Odysseus discovered Dolon approaching the Achaean camp. The two kings lay among the corpses till Dolon passed them and ran after him. Dolon proved to be the better runner but Athena infused fresh strength into the son of Tydeus for she feared some other Achaean might earn the glory of being first to hit Dolon.
Dolon gave them several valuable pieces of information. According to Dolon, Hector and the other councilors were holding conference by the monument of great Ilus, away from the general tumult. In addition, he told about a major weakness in Trojan army. Only the Trojans had watchfires; they, therefore, were awake and kept each other to their duty as sentinels; but the allies who have come from other places were asleep and left it to the Trojans to keep guard.
On further questioning, Diomedes and Odysseus learnt that among the various allies, Thracians were the most vulnerable for they had come last and were sleeping apart from the others at the far end of the camp. Having truthfully revealed valuable things, Dolon expected to be taken as a prisoner to the ships, or to be tied up, while the other two found out whether he had told them the truth or not.
But Diomedes told him: If we set you free tonight, there is nothing to prevent your coming down once more to the Achaean ships, either to play the spy or to meet us in open fight. But if I lay my hands on you and take your life, you will never be a nuisance to the Argives again.
Although the original purpose of this night mission was spying on the Trojans, the information given by Dolon persuaded the two friends to plan an attack upon the Thracians. They took the spoils and set them upon a tamarisk tree in honour of Athena.
Then they went where Dolon had indicated, and having found the Thracian king, Diomedes let him and twelve of his soldiers pass from one kind of sleep to another; for they were all killed in their beds, while asleep.
Diomedes was wondering when to stop. He was planning to kill some more Thracians and stealing the chariot of the king with his armour when Athena advised him to back off for some other god may warn the Trojans. Diomedes and Odysseus stealing Rhesus' horses This first night mission demonstrates another side of these two kings where they employed stealth and treachery along with might and bravery. In Book XIII, Idomeneus praises Meriones and claims the best warriors do in fact excel in both types of warfare, 'lokhos' ambush and 'polemos' open battle.
According to another version of the story, it had been foretold by an oracle that if the stallions of Rhesus were ever to drink from the river Scamander, which cuts across the Trojan plain, then the city of Troy would never fall. The Achaeans never allowed the horses to drink from that river for all of them were stolen by Diomedes and Odysseus shortly after their arrival. In a different story attributed to PindarRhesus fights so well against the Achaeans that Hera sends Odysseus and Diomedes to kill him secretly at night.
Another version Virgil and Servius says that Rhesus was given an oracle that claims he will be invincible after he and his horses drink from the Scamander.
Homer: The Iliad
In all these versions, killing Rhesus by Diomedes was instrumental for the victory. The horses of Rhesus were given to king Diomedes. According to some scholars, the rest of Thracians, deprived of their king, left Troy to return to their kingdom.
This was another bonus of the night mission. Book XI[ edit ] In the forenoon, the fight was equal, but Agamemnon turned the fortune of the day towards the Achaeans until he got wounded and left the field. Hector then seized the battlefield and slew many Achaeans. Beholding this, Diomedes and Odysseus continued to fight with a lot of valor, giving hope to the Achaeans.
The king of Argos slew Thymbraeus, two sons of Merops, and Agastrophus. Hector soon marked the havoc Diomedes and Odysseus were making, and approached them. Diomedes immediately threw his spear at Hector, aiming for his head. This throw was dead accurate but the helmet given by Apollo saved Hector's life. Yet, the spear was sent with such great force that Hector swooned away. Meanwhile, Diomedes ran towards Hector to get his spear. Hector recovered and mingled with the crowd, by which means he saved his life from Diomedes for the second time.
Frustrated, Diomedes shouted after Hector calling him a dog. The son of Tydeus, frequently referred to as the lord of war cry, was not seen speaking disrespectful words to his enemies before. Shortly after that Paris jumped up in joy for he managed to achieve a great feat by fixing Diomedes' foot to the ground with an arrow.
Dismayed at this, Diomedes said "Seducer, a worthless coward like you can inflict but a light wound; when I wound a man though I but graze his skin it is another matter, for my weapon will lay him low. His wife will tear her cheeks for grief and his children will be fatherless: Agamemnon proposed drawing the ships on the beach into the water but Odysseus rebuked him and pointed out the folly of such council.
Agamemnon said, "Someone, it may be, old or young, can offer us better counsel which I shall rejoice to hear. I say, then, let us go to the fight as we needs must, wounded though we be. When there, we may keep out of the battle and beyond the range of the spears lest we get fresh wounds in addition to what we have already, but we can spur on others, who have been indulging their spleen and holding aloof from battle hitherto.
First, he participated in the chariot race where he had to take the last place in the starting-line chosen by casting lots. Diomedes owned the fastest horses after Achilles who did not participate. A warrior named Eumelus took the lead and Diomedes could have overtaken him easily but Apollo who had a grudge against him made him drop the whip.
Beholding this trick played by the sun-god, Athena reacted with great anger. She not only gave the whip back to the son of Tydeus but also put fresh strength to his horses and went after Eumelus to break his yoke. Poor Eumelus was thrown down and his elbows, mouth, and nostrils were all torn. Antilochus told his horses that there is no point trying to overtake Diomedes for Athena wishes his victory.
Diomedes won the first prize — "a woman skilled in all useful arts, and a three-legged cauldron". The chariot race is considered as the most prestigious competition in the funeral games and the most formal occasion for validating the status of the elite. Next, he fought with great Ajax in an armed sparring contest where the winner was to draw blood first.
Ajax attacked Diomedes where his armour covered his body and achieved no success. Ajax owned the biggest armour and the tallest shield which covered most of his body leaving only two places vulnerable; his neck and armpits. So, Diomedes maneuvered his spear above Ajax's shield and attacked his neck, drawing blood. The Achaean leaders were scared that another such blow would kill Ajax and they stopped the fight.
Diomedes received the prize for the victor. This is the final appearance of Diomedes in the epic. Role as Athena's favored warrior[ edit ] It is generally accepted that Athena is closest to Diomedes in the epic. In the early traditions, Athena a virgin goddess is described as being shy in the company of males. Amazons[ edit ] Penthesileia led a small army of Amazons to Troy for the last year of the Trojan War. Two of her warriors, named Alcibie and Derimacheia, were slain by Diomedes.
A dispute with Achilles[ edit ] Penthesileia killed many Achaeans in battle. She was, however, no match for Achilles, who killed her. When Achilles stripped Penthesileia of her armour, he saw that the woman was young and very beautiful, and seemingly falls madly in love with her.
Achilles then regrets killing her. Thersites mocked Achilles for his behaviour, because the hero was mourning his enemy. Enraged, Achilles killed Thersites with a single blow to his face. Thersites was so quarrelsome and abusive in character, that only his cousin, Diomedes, mourned for him.
Diomedes wanted to avenge Thersites, but the other leaders persuaded the two mightiest Achaean warriors against fighting each other. Hearkening to prayers of comrades, the two heroes reconciled at last. According to Quintus Smyrnaeus, the Achaean leaders agreed to the boon of returning her body to the Trojans for her funeral pyre. According to some other sources, Diomedes angrily tossed Penthesileia's body into the river, so neither side could give her decent burial.
Homer (c BC) - The Iliad: Book VI
Diomedes won the sprint. According to Apollodorus, Diomedes won the footrace. Smyrnaeus says that the wrestling match between he and Ajax the Great came to a draw. Neoptolemus[ edit ] After the death of Achilles, it was prophesied that Troy could not be taken if Neoptolemus Achilles's son would not come and fight.
According to the Epic CycleOdysseus and Phoenix did this. Another prophecy[ edit ] The Achaean seer named Calchas prophesied that Philoctetes whom the Achaeans had abandoned on the island of Lemnos due to the vile odour from snakebite and the bow of Heracles are needed to take Troy. Philoctetes hated Odysseus, Agamemnon and Menelaus, because they were responsible for leaving him behind. Diomedes and Odysseus were charged with achieving this prophecy also. Knowing that Philoctetes would never agree to come with them, they sailed to the island and stole the bow of Heracles by a trick.
According to Little Iliad, Odysseus wanted to sail home with the bow but Diomedes refused to leave Philoctetes behind. Heracles now a god or Athena then persuaded Philoctetes to join the Achaeans again with the promise that he will be healed and he agreed to go with Diomedes. The bow of Heracles and the poisoned arrows were used by Philoctetes to slay Paris; this was a requirement to the fall of Troy.
According to some, Diomedes and Odysseus were sent into the city of Troy to negotiate for peace after the death of Paris. After Paris' death, Helenus left the city but was captured by Odysseus. The Achaeans learnt from Helenus, that Troy would not fall, while the Palladiumimage or statue of Athena, remained within Troy's walls.
The difficult task of stealing this sacred statue again fell upon the shoulders of Odysseus and Diomedes. There he was recognized by Helen, who told him where the Palladium was. Diomedes then climbed the wall of Troy and entered the city.
Together, the two friends killed several guards and one or more priests of Athena's temple and stole the Palladium "with their bloodstained hands". There are several statues and many ancient drawings of him with the Palladium.
Diomedes with The Palladium-Glyptothek Munich According to the Little Iliadon the way to the ships, Odysseus plotted to kill Diomedes and claim the Palladium or perhaps the credit for gaining it for himself. He raised his sword to stab Diomedes in the back. Diomedes was alerted to the danger by glimpsing the gleam of the sword in the moonlight. He turned round, seized the sword of Odysseus, tied his hands, and drove him along in front, beating his back with the flat of his sword.
Because Odysseus was essential for the destruction of Troy, Diomedes refrained from punishing him. Diomedes took the Palladium with him when he left Troy. According to some, he brought it to Argos where it remained until Ergiaeus, one of his descendants, took it away with the assistance of the Laconian Leagrus, who conveyed it to Sparta.
Some say that Diomedes was robbed of the palladium by Demophon in Attica, where he landed one night on his return from Troy, without knowing where he was. He was informed by an oracle, that he should be exposed to unceasing sufferings unless he restored the sacred image to the Trojans.
Therefore, he gave it back to his enemy, Aeneas. Odysseus used this sentiment to his advantage when he invented the Trojan Horse stratagem. The Wooden Horse[ edit ] This stratagem invented by Odysseus made it possible to take the city. Diomedes was one of the warriors inside. He slew many Trojan warriors inside the city. According to Quintus Smyrnaeus, while slaughtering countless Trojans, Diomedes met an elderly man named Ilioneus who begged for mercy.
Despite his fury of war, Diomedes held back his sword so that the old man might speak. Ilioneus begged "Oh compassionate my suppliant hands! To slay the young and valiant is a glorious thing; but if you smite an old man, small renown waits on your prowess. Therefore turn from me your hands against young men, if you hope ever to come to grey hairs such as mine. The brave man makes an end of every foe. Some of the other Trojan warriors slain by Diomedes during that night were Coroebus who came to Troy to win the hand of Cassandra,  Eurydamas and Eurycoon.
Cypria says that Polyxena died after being wounded by Odysseus and Diomedes in the capture of the city. Odysseus, unsuccessfully, tried to persuade the Achaean leaders to put Ajax to death, by stoning the Locrian leader to divert the goddess's anger. Diomedes and other Achaean leaders disagreed because Ajax himself clung to the same statue of Athena in order to save himself. The failure of Achaean leaders to punish Ajax the Lesser for the sacrilege of Athena's altar resulted in earning her wrath.
However, she did not punish Diomedes. Athena caused a quarrel between Agamemnon and Menelaus about the voyage from Troy. Agamemnon then stayed on to appease the anger of Athena. Diomedes and Nestor held a discussion about the situation and decided to leave immediately. They took their vast armies and left Troy. They managed to reach home safely but Athena called upon Poseidon to bring a violent storm upon most of other Achaean ships.
Diomedes is one of the few Achaean commanders to return home safely. Since the other Achaeans suffered during their respective 'nostoi' Returns because they committed an atrocity of some kind, Diomedes' safe nostos implies that he had the favour of the gods during his journey.
Palamedes's brother Oeax went to Argos and reported to Aegialia, falsely or not, that her husband was bringing a woman he preferred to his wife. Others say that Aegialia herself had taken a lover, Cometes son of Sthenelusbeing persuaded to do so by Palamedes's father Nauplius.
Still others say that despite Diomedes's noble treatment of her son Aeneas, Aphrodite never managed to forget about the Argive spear that had once pierced her flesh in the fields of Troy. She helped Aegialia to obtain not one, but many lovers. According to different traditions, Aegialeia was living in adultery with Hippolytus, Cometes or Cyllabarus. Or else, if he ever entered Argos, he had to take sanctuary at the altar of Hera, and thence flee with his companions by night.
He went to the court of King Daunus, King of the Daunians. The king was honored to accept the great warrior. He begged Diomedes for help in warring against the Messapians, for a share of the land and marriage to his daughter. Diomedes agreed the proposal, drew up his men and routed the Messapians. He took his land which he assigned to the Dorians, his followers. The two nations 'Monadi' and the 'Dardi' were vanquished by Diomedes along with the two cities of 'Apina' and 'Trica'.
Some say that, after the sack of Troy, Diomedes came to Libya due to a stormwhere he was put in prison by King Lycus who planned on sacrificing him to Ares. It is said that it was the king's daughter Callirrhoe, who loosing Diomedes from his bonds, saved him. Diomedes is said to have thanklessly sailed away, and the girl killed herself with a halter.
The last was made as a peace-offering to the goddess, including temples in her honor. When war broke out between Aeneas and Turnus, Turnus tried to persuade Diomedes to aid them in the war against the Trojans. Diomedes told them he had fought enough Trojans in his lifetime and urged Turnus that it was best to make peace with Aeneas than to fight the Trojans.
He also said that his purpose in Italy is to live in peace. He states that when he found Diomedes, he was laying the foundations of his new city, Argyrippa. The hero also states that birds pursue him and his soldiers, birds which used to be his companions and cry out everywhere they land, including the sea cliffs.
At Troezene he had founded a temple of Apollo Epibaterius and instituted the Pythian games there. Hero cult of Diomedes[ edit ] Hero cults became much more commonplace from the beginning of the 8th century onwards, and they were widespread throughout several Greek cities in the Mediterranean by the last quarter of the century. There are also vestiges of this cult in areas like Cyprus and some mainland Greek cities, given the inscriptions on votive offerings found in temples and tombs, but the popularity is most evident along the Eastern coast of Italy.
This cult reached so far East in the Mediterranean due to the Achaean migration during the 8th century. At Argos, his native place, during the festival of Athena, his shield was carried through the streets as a relic, together with the Palladium, and his statue was washed in the river Inachus. Strabo mentions that one was uninhabited.
Hector and Helen berate Paris for shirking the battlefield. He agrees to arm himself and catch up with Hector as he returns to battle. Paris and Hector are a study in contrasts: Hector cares deeply about protecting the city and all of its inhabitants, whereas Paris is so consumed by his own grief that he is incapable of being any use.
Active Themes Hector speeds to his own house, but his wife Andromache is not there. Hector runs to the gates, where he meets Andromache and their infant son Astyanax. Hector tells her he must fight so that all of Troy is not destroyed.
Hector is shown to be a family man, caring deeply for his wife and son. Such family ties are the very things that the Trojans are fighting to preserve. And yet, at the same time, war forces men from their families. There is honor and glory to be gained in war, but much to be lost as well, particularly for those left behind. Active Themes Hector reaches down to cradle his son, but Astyanax is frightened, not recognizing his father in full battle armor. Hector removes his helmet and kisses his son.
Hector says a prayer for his son, hoping he will become a strong warrior, and tells Andromache not to mourn him too soon. He tells her that no man escapes his fate, and urges her to go back to her work. Active Themes Related Quotes with Explanations Hector puts his helmet back on and heads back into battle.
The women of Troy begin to mourn Hector, convinced that he will never return from battle with the Achaeans.