Moist heat cooking methods are used for parts of well-understood ways of cooking meat. Method Combine kebab masala in a chopper/blender and make a fine paste. Heat up a small piece of charcoal and place over mince meat. Fresh meat can be cooked for immediate consumption, or be part of body) and method of preparation (e.g., a beef rib).
While each kind of meat has about the same content of protein and carbohydrates, there is a very wide range of fat content. Fishing industry Meat is produced by killing an animal and cutting flesh out of it.
These procedures are called slaughter and butcheryrespectively. There is ongoing research into producing meat in vitrothat is, outside of animals. Transport Upon reaching a predetermined age or weight, livestock are usually transported en masse to the slaughterhouse. Depending on its length and circumstances, this may exert stress and injuries on the animals, and some may die en route. Slaughter Animals are usually slaughtered by being first stunned and then exsanguinated bled out.
Death results from the one or the other procedure, depending on the methods employed. Stunning can be effected through asphyxiating the animals with carbon dioxideshooting them with a gun or a captive bolt pistolor shocking them with electric current. Draining as much blood as possible from the carcass is necessary because blood causes the meat to have an unappealing appearance and is a breeding ground for microorganisms.
Under hygienic conditions and without other treatment, meat can be stored at above its freezing point —1. The more tender the cut, the lower the internal temperature needed to produce a satisfactory product. A meat thermometer is the most accurate guide to the doneness of roasts.
The thermometer should be inserted into the roast surface at a slight angle or through the end of the roast so the tip of the thermometer is in the thickest portion of the cut, but not resting in fat, against the bone, or on the rotisserie rod.
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When using the rotisserie, the thermometer must clear the cooking unit and drip pan while the meat is turning. Dry Heat- Dry heat methods of cooking are suitable for tender cuts of meat or less tender cuts which have been marinated. Dry heat methods include roasting, oven broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, panfrying and stir—frying. Roasting—this method of cooking is recommended for larger cuts of beef, veal, pork and lamb.
For cuts suitable for roasting and other cooking methods, see Chapter 3. Less tender cuts such as beef flank steak, beef top round, and veal, pork and lamb shoulder chops may also be broiled when marinated. Marinating can increase the tenderness of these cuts but only to a limited degree. The same tender cuts suitable for oven broiling can be pan- or griddle broiled. While it is usually done out- doors, grilling can be done in the kitchen with special types of range tops or newer, small appliances.
Standard charcoal briquettes are the most common fuel for grilling. High-quality briquettes burn evenly and consistently.
Flammable material for quick-start fires may be added. It takes longer for natural lump charcoal to get hot, but it provides heat for a longer period of time. Woods like mesquite, apple, cherry and grapevine—in chip or briquette form— gives unique flavors to grilled beef and lamb. Hickory generally is best for smoking beef and pork. Wood chips are first soaked in water about 30 minutes, drained, and then placed on the burning coals. Grilling is often used to cook kabobs.
Meat and meat products in human nutrition - Role of meat and meat products in human nutrition
Kabobs are pieces of meat, or a combination of meat and vegetables, or meat and fruit pieces, alternated on a skewer. Pan-broiling—Pan-broiling is a faster and more convenient method than oven broiling for cooking thinner steaks or chops. Stir-frying—Stir-frying is similar to panfrying except that the food is stirred almost continuously Cooking is done with high heat, using small or thin pieces of meat. Deep-fat frying—When meat is cooked immersed in fat, the process is called deep-fat frying.
This method is only used with very tender meat. Usually, meat to be deep-fat fried is coated with egg and crumbs or a batter, or it is dredged in flour or corn meal breaded. This method of cooking is sometimes used for brains, sweetbreads, liver and croquettes; however, a number of other meat products are suitable for deep-fat frying.
Pan-frying—Panfrying differs from pan-broiling in that a small amount of fat is added first, or allowed to accumulate during cooking. Panfrying is a method suitable for ground meat, small or thin cuts of meat, thin strips, and pounded, scored or other- wise tenderized cuts that do not require prolonged heating for tenderization.
Moist Heat—Moist-heat methods of cooking are suitable for less tender cuts of meat. Moist-heat cooking helps to reduce surface drying in those cuts requiring prolonged cooking times. Unless a pressure cooker is used, cooking temperature is usually low, but heat penetration is faster than in dry-heat methods because steam and water conduct heat rapidly.
With moist-heat cookery, meat may lose some water—soluble nutrients into the cooking liquid. However, if the cooking liquids are consumed, as in stews or soups, nutrients are transferred and not totally lost. Unfortunately, this method of cooking often leads to the production of potentially harmful chemicals.
When meat is grilled at high temperatures, fat melts and drips onto the grill or cooking surface. This creates toxic compounds called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs that can rise up and seep into the meat 7. PAHs have been linked to several types of cancer, including breast and pancreatic cancer 8910 Another concern with both grilling and broiling is that they promote the formation of compounds known as advanced glycation end products AGEs.
AGEs have been linked to an increased risk of several diseases, including heart disease, kidney disease and skin aging 1213 They are created in the body as by-products of a chemical reaction that occurs between sugars and proteins.
They can also form in foods during cooking, especially at high temperatures. One study found that broiled beef had higher levels of AGEs than beef cooked by other methods Keeping cooking times short and removing meat from high heat before it becomes charred may help reduce the amount of AGEs produced. Grilling is a popular form of cooking that can produce toxic by-products known as PAHs.
Both grilling and broiling promote the formation of AGEs, which may increase disease risk.
Simmering, poaching and stewing are similar moist heat methods of cooking. Although cooking times are generally longer than for many other cooking methods, temperatures are lower. The three methods are classified by the temperature of the cooking liquid: Poaching involves shorter cooking times than stewing or simmering and is reserved for delicate foods like chicken, fish and duck.
Research has shown that cooking with moist heat at low temperatures can minimize the formation of AGEs On the other hand, the lengthy cooking times for stewing and simmering can lead to a loss of B vitamins, nutrients that are typically high in meat and poultry. Fortunately, consuming the meat's juices as part of a stew or soup can significantly reduce these vitamin losses 6. Poaching, simmering and stewing meat at low temperatures helps minimize the production of AGEs.
However, B vitamins can be lost during stewing or simmering unless you also consume the cooking liquid. Panfrying and Stir-Frying Panfrying and stir-frying both refer to cooking meat with fat in a skillet, wok or pot.
During stir-frying, food is continuously flipped or stirred with a spatula as it cooks, while panfrying generally doesn't involve this type of constant movement. Although these methods use high heat, cooking times are very short, which helps maintain tender meat with good flavor. These cooking techniques also promote the retention of nutrients and are less likely than many other methods to cause the cholesterol in fatty meats to become oxidized.
Oxidized cholesterol is considered a risk factor for heart disease On the other hand, panfrying and stir-frying have some drawbacks. Heterocyclic amines HAs are compounds capable of causing cancer. They are formed when meat reaches high temperatures during cooking. Studies have found that HAs often occur during the panfrying of meat and poultry 1819 Marinating meat in mixtures containing fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices high in antioxidants may help reduce the formation of HAs.
In addition, it's important to choose a healthy fat when panfrying or stir-frying. Most vegetable and seed oils are high in polyunsaturated fats that are prone to damage at high temperatures. Heating these oils also promotes the formation of oxygenated aldehydes, potentially cancer-causing chemicals found in cooking fumes Palm oil and olive oil have been shown to form fewer aldehydes than vegetable and seed oils during stir-frying and panfrying 24 Other healthy cooking fats that are stable at high temperatures include coconut oillard and tallow.
Panfrying and stir-frying involve cooking in fat at high heat for short periods of time. Minimize the production of HAs and aldehydes by using antioxidant-rich marinades and healthy cooking fats.