Crisis management - Wikipedia
A business plan is a formal written document containing business goals, the methods on how Internally-focused business plans target intermediate goals required to reach the external goals. They may cover . Business plans can help decision makers see how specific projects relate to the organization's strategic plan. This article delineates the history of urban planning, a technical and political process .. In , Thomas Adams was appointed as the first Town Planning Inspector at the Local Government Board, and began meeting with practitioners. . stakeholders by elevating them to the level of decision-makers through direct. Transportation planning is the process of defining future policies, goals, investments, and and create transport policies, strategies and plans that contribute to meeting social, . Transportation planners help by providing information to decision makers, such as politicians, in a manner that produces beneficial outcomes.
A river sometimes flowed near or through the city, providing water, transport, and sewage disposal. Many European towns, such as Turinpreserve the remains of these schemes, which show the very logical way the Romans designed their cities. They would lay out the streets at right angles, in the form of a square grid. All roads were equal in width and length, except for two, which were slightly wider than the others. The decumanusrunning east—west, and the cardorunning north—south, intersected in the middle to form the centre of the grid.
All roads were made of carefully fitted flag stones and filled in with smaller, hard-packed rocks and pebbles. Bridges were constructed where needed. Each square marked by four roads was called an insulathe Roman equivalent of a modern city block.
As the city developed, it could eventually be filled with buildings of various shapes and sizes and criss-crossed with back roads and alleys. The city may have been surrounded by a wall to protect it from invaders and to mark the city limits. Areas outside city limits were left open as farmland. At the end of each main road was a large gateway with watchtowers. A portcullis covered the opening when the city was under siege, and additional watchtowers were constructed along the city walls.
An aqueduct was built outside the city walls.
The development of Greek and Roman urbanisation is relatively well-known, as there are relatively many written sources, and there has been much attention to the subject since the Romans and Greeks are generally regarded as the main ancestors of modern Western culture.
It should not be forgotten, though, that there were also other cultures with more or less urban settlements in Europe, primarily of Celtic origin. Elburg was founded in by Arent toe Boecop, steward of the duke of Gelre. Arent seems to have acted as a private entrepreneur. He had bought a piece of land next to the existing town, and he obtained permission from his lord to extend and rebuild the town, and to resettle the population of the surrounding area, selling the house lots to the settlers.
The highly symmetrical layout is centred on a canalised river and an intersecting street. The symmetry is disturbed, however, by the church in the eastern corner and by the pre-existing street the only curved one in the whole town on the northwest side.
The corner bastions and the wide outer ditch were added in the late 16th century. After the gradual disintegration and fall of the West-Roman empire in the 5th century and the devastation by the invasions of Huns, Germanic peoples, Byzantines, Moors, Magyars, and Normans in the next five centuries, little remained of urban culture in western and central Europe. In the 10th and 11th centuries, though, there appears to have been a general improvement in the political stability and economy.
This made it possible for trade and craft to grow and for the monetary economy and urban culture to revive. Initially, urban culture recovered particularly in existing settlements, often in remnants of Roman towns and cities, but later on, ever more towns were created anew.
Meanwhile, the population of western Europe increased rapidly and the utilised agricultural area grew with it. The agricultural areas of existing villages were extended and new villages and towns were created in uncultivated areas as cores for new reclamations. Since the new centre was often on high, defensible ground, the city plan took on an organic character, following the irregularities of elevation contours like the shapes that result from agricultural terracing.
Plan by John Speed, In the 9th to 14th centuries, many hundreds of new towns were built in Europe, and many others were enlarged with newly planned extensions. New towns were founded in different parts of Europe from about the 9th century on, but most of them were realised from the 12th to 14th centuries, with a peak-period at the end of the 13th. All kinds of landlords, from the highest to the lowest rank, tried to found new towns on their estates, in order to gain economical, political or military power.
The settlers of the new towns generally were attracted by fiscal, economic, and juridical advantages granted by the founding lord, or were forced to move from elsewhere from his estates.
The newly founded towns often show a marked regularity in their plan form, in the sense that the streets are often straight and laid out at right angles to one another, and that the house lots are rectangular, and originally largely of the same size. Only in the parts of Europe where the process of urbanisation had started relatively late, as in eastern Europe, was it still to go on for one or two more centuries.
It would not be until the Industrial Revolution that the same level of expansion of urban population would be reached again, although the number of newly created settlements would remain much lower than in the 12th and 13th centuries. This model was widely imitated, reflecting the enormous cultural power of Florence in this age; "[t]he Renaissance was hypnotised by one city type which for a century and a half— from Filarete to Scamozzi — was impressed upon utopian schemes: The Ideal City probably by Fra Carnevalec.
The Roman archway and colosseum suggest the value of military victory and mass entertainment. The ideal centrally planned urban space: Sposalizio by Raphael SanzioOnly in ideal cities did a centrally planned structure stand at the heart, as in Raphael 's Sposalizio Illustration of As built, the unique example of a rationally planned quattrocento new city centre, that of Vigevano —95resembles a closed space instead, surrounded by arcading.
Filarete 's ideal city, building on Leon Battista Alberti 's De re aedificatoria, was named " Sforzinda " in compliment to his patron; its twelve-pointed shape, circumscribable by a "perfect" Pythagorean figurethe circle, took no heed of its undulating terrain in Filarete's manuscript.
Following the bombardment of Brussels by the French troops of King Louis XIVin which a large part of the city centre was destroyed, Governor Max Emanuel proposed using the reconstruction to completely change the layout and architectural style of the city.
His plan was to transform the medieval city into a city of the new baroque style, modeled on Turinwith a logical street layout, with straight avenues offering long, uninterrupted views flanked by buildings of a uniform size. This plan was opposed by residents and municipal authorities, who wanted a rapid reconstruction, did not have the resources for grandiose proposals, and resented what they considered the imposition of a new, foreign, architectural style.
In the actual reconstruction, the general layout of the city was conserved, but it was not identical to that before the cataclysm. Despite the necessity of rapid reconstruction and the lack of financial means, authorities did take several measures to improve traffic flow, sanitation, and the aesthetics of the city.
The Adjustment Bureau - Wikipedia
Many streets were made as wide as possible to improve traffic flow. Enlightenment Europe and America[ edit ] During the Second French EmpireHaussmann transformed the medieval city of Paris into a modern capital, with long, straight, wide boulevards. The planning was influenced by many factors, not the least of which was the city's history of street revolutions.
Illustration of Savannah, Georgia on the Oglethorpe Plan in During this period, rulers often embarked on ambitious attempts at redesigning their capital cities as a showpiece for the grandeur of the nation. Disasters were often a major catalyst for planned reconstruction. An exception to this was in London after the Great Fire of when, despite many radical rebuilding schemes from architects such as John Evelyn and Christopher Wrenno large-scale redesigning was achieved due to the complexities of rival ownership claims.
However, improvements were made in hygiene and fire safety with wider streets, stone construction and access to the river. The Great Fire did, however, stimulate thinking about urban design that influenced city planning in North America. The Grand Model for the Province of Carolinadeveloped in the aftermath of the Great Fire, established a template for colonial planning. Model of the seismically protective wooden structure, the " gaiola pombalina" pombaline cagedeveloped for the reconstruction of Pombaline Lower Town In contrast, after the Lisbon earthquakeKing Joseph I of Portugal and his ministers immediately launched efforts to rebuild the city.
The architect Manuel da Maia boldly proposed razing entire sections of the city and "laying out new streets without restraint". This last option was chosen by the king and his minister. The Pombaline buildings were among the earliest seismically protected constructions in Europe.
An even more ambitious reconstruction was carried out in Paris. Beyond aesthetic and sanitary considerations, the wide thoroughfares facilitated troop movement and policing. His objectives were to improve the health of the inhabitants, towards which the blocks were built around central gardens and orientated NW-SE to maximise the sunlight they received, and assist social integration. The industrialised cities of the 19th century had grown at a tremendous rate, with the pace and style of building largely dictated by private business concerns.
Designing a new car, writing a book. Project Complexity[ edit ] Complexity and its nature plays an important role in the area of project management. Despite having number of debates on this subject matter, studies suggest lack of definition and reasonable understanding of complexity in relation to management of complex projects.
Level 2 Project — develop and improve compliance to a business process with targeted completion time from 3 months to 1 year. Level 3 Project — develop, change and improve a business process with targeted completion time from 1 to 2 years. Level 4 Project — develop, change and improve a functional system with targeted completion time from 2 to 5 years.
Level 6 Project — develop, change and improve a whole single value chain of a company with targeted completion time from 10 to 20 years. Level 7 Project — develop, change and improve multiple value chains of a company with target completion time from 20 to 50 years.
Project managers are in charge of the people in a project. People are the key to any successful project. Without the correct people in the right place and at the right time a project cannot be successful. Project managers can have the responsibility of the planning, execution, controlling, and closing of any project typically relating to the construction industryengineering, architecture, computingand telecommunications.
Many other fields of production engineering, design engineering, and heavy industrial have project managers. A project manager needs to understand the order of execution of a project to schedule the project correctly as well as the time necessary to accomplish each individual task within the project.
A project manager is the person accountable for accomplishing the stated project objectives.
A project manager is required to know the project in and out while supervising the workers along with the project. Typically in most construction, engineering, architecture and industrial projects, a project manager has another manager working alongside of them who is typically responsible for the execution of task on a daily basis.MeetYourMakers - LCS 2013 [Part 1]
This position in some cases is known as a superintendent. A superintendent and project manager work hand in hand in completing daily project task. Key project management responsibilities include creating clear and attainable project objectives, building the project requirements, and managing the triple constraint now including more constraints and calling it competing constraints for projects, which is cost, time, and scope for the first three but about three additional ones in current project management.
A typical project is composed of a team of workers who work under the project manager to complete the assignment. A project manager normally reports directly to someone of higher stature on the completion and success of the project.
A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are representing. The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized.
Project management types[ edit ] Project management can apply to any project, but it is often tailored to accommodate the specific needs of different and highly specialized industries. For example, the construction industry, which focuses on the delivery of things like buildings, roads, and bridges, has developed its own specialized form of project management that it refers to as construction project management and in which project managers can become trained and certified. Biotechnology project management focuses on the intricacies of biotechnology research and development.
It focuses on three important goals: Successful projects are completed on schedule, within budget, and according to previously agreed quality standards.