What does tri-meet mean?
a series of athletic contests such as running and jumping, usually including most track-and-field events. badz.info Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. US and Canadian an athletics meeting. Triple Mode Tri-Mode Definition - Triple mode (tri-mode) is a mode redundancy technique for building fault tolerant Techopedia - Where IT and Business Meet. There are four criteria that a facility must meet to file a TRI report called a Form R: (a) the The following is a description of the activity thresholds defined as.
Release And Waste Quantities Only if a threshold quantity is exceeded for either manufacturing, processing, or otherwise use, would a facility be required to submit a TRI report. For each of those chemicals, information on how and what quantities are managed as waste are reported on the TRI form. So again, threshold quantities are not reported under TRI. But, they are necessarily calculated to determine whether or not a Form R or Form A report must be completed and submitted.
Now, what are the actual threshold quantities that would trigger TRI reporting? These are the threshold quantities for the majority of the TRI chemicals. They are all listed here. Slide 47 - PBT Chemicals and Thresholds The actual threshold quantities that trigger reporting vary depending on the chemical. For eight of the chemicals, the threshold is pounds per year.
For those chemicals that are considered to be highly persistent and bioaccumulative, the threshold is 10 pounds per year. And for dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, the threshold is.
For PBT chemicals, the threshold quantities are the same for manufacturing, processing, and otherwise use. Quiz 2 Quiz 2 - Question 1 A plant uses benzene as a raw material to manufacture liquid industrial adhesive. The plant adds 27, lbs of benzene to its liquid adhesive-making operation during the reporting year, but 3, lbs are volatilized during the operation.
How much of the benzene should be applied toward the processing activity threshold? Always apply the total amount that enters a process toward the activity threshold. Quiz 2 - Question 2 If a facility processes 20, lb of 2-Butoxyethanol in one operation and 10, lb of 2- 2-Butoxyethoxy ethanol in another operation during the reporting year, what should it apply towards it's processing threshold for glycol ethers?
Answer C is correct. The facility has exceeded the reporting threshold for processing 25, lb and would need to report for the glycol ethers chemical category.
Quiz 2 - Question 3 A facility processes 18, lbs copper sulfate, 10, lbs of cuprous oxide, and otherwise uses 12, lbs of aqueous sulfuric acid solution in a closed system. The qualifier for sulfuric acid indicates that it is only reportable in an aerosol form. Because the facility only used the sulfuric acid in an aqueous form and does not generate acid aerosolsit does not need to consider it towards the otherwise use threshold, and no report for sulfuric acid is required.
Only the actual amount of the TRI chemical in the mixture is counted towards the activity threshold. To calculate the threshold quantity the concentration of the chemical in the mixture is needed. In some cases the actual concentration of the TRI chemical in the mixture is known. In other cases the chemical concentration is not known.
Chemical concentrations can be obtained from Material Safety Data Sheets, analytical data, your own process knowledge, from the labels of the containers, any literature associated with the product. Vendors may supply it. Or you may have additional data. If a TRI chemical is not known to be present in a mixture, then a threshold determination for the TRI chemical is not required.
Slide 50 - TRI Chemicals Contained in Mixtures When determining threshold quantities, be sure to only include the portion of the mixture that is the TRI chemical, and not the weight of the entire mixture.
The de minimis exemption allows for low concentrations of TRI chemicals in mixtures to be ignored in most cases. It is not related to the quantity of the mixture used.
Note that metal alloys are considered solid mixtures. Like any other mixture, you would multiply the percent of the TRI chemical that is in the alloy by the total weight of the alloy to determine the threshold quantity. In some cases the exact concentration of the TRI chemical is provided. In some cases a lower bound is provided for a TRI chemical in a mixture. If a lower-bound is provided, facilities would subtract out any other known constituents, creating an upper bound, thereby creating their own range, and use the midpoint of the range.
The midpoint of that range would be They must provide a concentration or a range of concentrations for the TRI chemical that is in a mixture or a trade name product.
They must provide this notification at least annually or attach it to the Material Safety Data Sheet for the chemical. If any changes occur related to the TRI chemical or its concentration, they must provide that information as well.
Slide 53 - Watch for Double Counting Be sure to watch out for double counting when calculating threshold quantities. Count the original amount of the chemical used in a threshold activity over the course of the reporting year only once. For materials that are in use from previous years, only count the quantity that was added during the current reporting year.
Remember that chemicals that are stored or stockpiled that are not manufactured, processed, or otherwise used during the reporting year are not counted for threshold determinations. Also note that any chemicals that are sent off-site for recycling and returned to the facility are considered new materials and would be counted again towards activity thresholds. Be sure to watch out for double accounting within the same activity threshold. For example, if a facility blends a TRI chemical in a product mixture and then the mixture is repackaged for sale into another container, those are both considered processing activities — the blending and the repackaging.
While a chemical is processed twice, only count the quantity once towards the processing threshold. The paint product was then repackaged into 55 gallon drums for sale. The processing threshold for this facility for that reporting year is only 20, pounds. Slide 55 - Multi-Establishment Facility Facilities that are comprised of multiple establishments must take care to avoid both double counting and under counting of TRI chemicals used across the facility.
Multi-establishment facilities are facilities that are comprised of separate economic or organizational units within the facility. Sometimes these separate units can create barriers to information exchange and gaps or overlaps in TRI reporting responsibilities. For threshold determinations facilities must consider the aggregate amount of TRI chemicals used throughout the facility, including all of the establishments. If a threshold is exceeded a TRI form is required.
Multiple establishment facilities can file separate Form R reports for each part of the facility. On the TRI Form R and in the reporting software, the filer can designate their submittal for a part of the facility. Remember to report all non-exempt releases and other waste management activities of reportable TRI chemicals for all parts of a facility. When reporting as multiple establishments, avoid double-counting of the same chemicals. When facilities do report as separate establishments within the same facility, the quantities on the reports will be added together by EPA, and the reports that are made available to the public will show the aggregate amounts.
It might help to track chemicals as they enter the facility. Consider chemicals that are purchased or that are in inventory. These should all be considered towards activity thresholds. It helps to get the cooperation and support from all the different groups at the facility who may be purchasing or using TRI chemicals. For example, consider TRI chemicals that may be in steel or aluminum alloys that may be above the de minimis concentration. Manganese is one example.
Basics of TRI Reporting | Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program | US EPA
Slide 57 - Threshold Determinations There are a number of different sources of information available to facilities — to both identify the chemicals and concentrations, collect the data, and calculate the thresholds. Facilities should also consider any waste profiles or testing data.
Also, consider using any other data about the wastes leaving and raw materials entering your facility. Inventory or purchase records are often a good source of information. Production data can help you in quantifying the amounts of TRI chemicals to apply towards thresholds. Regulatory reports, either air permits or water, chemical analyses associated with permits applications, and waste reports — are all potential sources of information on TRI chemicals.
Slide 58 - Example: In this example Omni Chemical has filled out a worksheet for toluene. A degreaser, some paints, and a wash parts washer fluid. The next step is to identify TRI chemicals that may fall under some of the exemptions that we will discuss later. None of the toluene in the bathroom paint would need to be considered towards the otherwise use activity threshold.
So the facility is able to subtract the 1, pounds in the paint from their total to obtain 9, pounds of toluene that was otherwise used at the facility in the reporting year. Because the threshold for the otherwise use of toluene is 10, pounds, they have not exceeded the threshold and would not need to complete a TRI report for toluene.
Facilities should put systems into place that gather the information in real time.
Researching information on TRI chemicals, oftentimes more than a year after they were used at your facility, can be difficult. Use the team approach. Spread the work by involving the people that are using or managing these TRI chemicals — engineers, people in purchasing, in the health and safety department are some examples. Be sure to keep good records, and to document your work. This will reduce the burden for future years. Keeping detailed records improves the reporting accuracy and the quality of the data.
Also it will reduce replication of effort from year to year. Facilities should also keep good records of calculations, information sources, and assumptions, so that they can form the basis of procedures for completing their threshold determinations and reports in future years. Such practices help insure consistency from year to year especially when the personnel responsible for TRI requirements changes.
Also, record keeping is required by EPA. Facilities must keep their records for three years. And the EPA can review those records if an audit is conducted at the facility. If not, the facility is not covered by TRI and would not need to continue. If so, the next step is to determine whether or not it has 10 or more full time employees. If not, the facility is not covered by TRI. The next step is to determine whether or not the facility manufactures, processes, or otherwise uses TRI chemicals.
If not, it would not need to report to TRI, but if so, the next step is to determine whether or not the facility has exceeded the threshold for manufacturing, processing, or otherwise using those TRI chemicals. If it has not exceeded any thresholds, no reports are required.
If so, the facility would need to complete and submit a Form R or a Form A for each of the chemicals for which an activity threshold was exceeded.
Basics of TRI Reporting
The purpose of reporting exemptions is to reduce the burden of reporting associated with small or ancillary operations. If an exemption applies, then all the associated amount of the TRI chemical does not need to be included in threshold determinations, release reporting, or supplier notification.
Slide 64 - Reporting Exemptions The TRI exemptions include the de minimis exemption, the articles exemption, the laboratory activities exemption, and two exemptions that are specific to facilities in the coal mining and metal mining sectors.
Also, there is a series of exemptions for the otherwise use of TRI chemicals in motor vehicle maintenance, routine janitorial or facility grounds maintenance, structural components, personal use, and intake water and air.
The de minimis concentrations are provided for each chemical on the TRI chemical list, which is Table II of the reporting forms and instructions. Slide 66 - De Minimis Exemption So how does the de minimis exemption work? De minimis exemption can apply to non-PBT chemicals that are in mixtures of trade name products that are processed or otherwise used. It can also apply to two manufacturing activities: In other words, the de minimis exemption does not apply to manufacturing of chemicals in most cases, including coincidentally manufacturing of TRI chemicals as by-products, which are removed from the process.
The de minimis exemption also does not apply to wastes that are received from off-site. And it does not apply to PBT chemicals. PBTs, or persistent, bioaccumulative toxics, are a subset of the TRI chemicals comprised of 21 chemicals and chemical categories. As for the supplier notification requirements, suppliers are not required to notify users of the presence of a TRI chemical that is below the de minimis concentration.
However, the users of the mixtures containing TRI chemicals are still required to consider all quantities of TRI chemicals know to be present. The de minimis exemption is the only exemption that does not apply to PBT chemicals.
Slide 68 - Determining Concentrations in Wastes The de minimis exemption does not apply to wastes that are processed or otherwise used. For example, in cases where the MSDS gives a range or an upper bound, use the guidance we discussed earlier for how to determine what concentration to use and compare that to the de minimis. The article exemption applies to TRI chemicals contained in articles.
There are three criteria that must be met to be considered an article under TRI. First, an article is formed into a specific shape or design during its manufacture. Second, an article has an end-use function that is dependent in whole or in part on that shape or design. And, third, an article does not release a TRI chemical under normal processing or use conditions at the facility. Slide 70 - Article Exemption: How it Works Now lets look at how the article exemption works in more detail.
In a recognizable form means that the releases from the article must still look like and be recognized as pieces of the article. If more than half a pound of TRI chemical is released from all the like items used at the facility in the course of the year, and the releases are not in a recognizable form, and they are not recycled or directly reused, none of the items meet the article exemption.
Also, to maintain a recognizable form, the article must maintain its thickness or diameter to be considered exempt as an article.
Slide 71 - Article Exemption: Wire itself would be considered an article, but in cutting the wire to the specified lengths, there is some waste of off-spec cuts and some dust. Quantities of the dust and off-spec cuts that are not recognizable as pieces of wire and that are greater than half a pound for any TRI chemical and not recycled or directly reused would negate the article status.
When the bulbs are no longer of use, they are crushed in an enclosed container for recycling. In this case the fluorescent bulbs would still be exempt. The normal use of the fluorescent bulbs does not release mercury. Crushing of the bulbs may release mercury, but that is not considered normal use of the bulb, so the exemption is not negated.
Note that the mercury in the bulbs is exempt from TRI reporting, but other regulatory requirements associated with the proper management of waste fluorescent bulbs should be followed. Slide 72 - Article Exemption Facilities need to be careful that they do not inappropriately use the articles exemption. Also the article exemption does not apply to the actual manufacturing of articles. The articles need to be brought in from a supplier and processed or otherwise used at the facility.
The first one applies to certain coal mining activities that would be exempt from threshold determinations and release reporting.
For coal mining, the exempt activities include the physical removal or exposure of the ore or coal prior to the beneficiation of the material. Similarly, certain metal mining activities are also exempt from TRI reporting. Slide 74 - Laboratory Activity Exemptions The next exemption is the laboratory activities exemption. TRI chemicals that are used in laboratories are exempt if they are used for sampling and analysis, research and development, quality assurance, or quality control.
TRI chemicals used in laboratory activities are not exempt in the case of specialty chemical production, pilot-scale plant operation, activities that are not conducted in an actual lab, and support services such as photo processing or equipment maintenance and cleaning. The TRI chemicals that are otherwise used to maintain vehicles that are operated by the facility would be eligible for this exemption.
By motor vehicles, we are including cars, trucks, airplanes, space craft, military vehicles, and forklifts. Motor vehicle maintenance includes body repairs, painting, parts washing and plating, fueling, and adding other fluids to the vehicle. So those chemicals would not be exempt. Slide 76 - Routine Janitorial or Facility Grounds Maintenance Exemption The routine janitorial or facility grounds maintenance exemption covers the otherwise use of TRI chemicals and products and materials used for cleaning facilities and maintaining their grounds.
TRI chemicals that are used for facility equipment maintenance or cleaning or maintenance activities that are directly associated with the production process would not be eligible for the routine janitorial or facility grounds maintenance exemption.
Slide 77 - Structural Component Exemption Test TRI chemicals otherwise used in certain structural components of the facility may also be exempt. First, such chemicals must meet the following requirements: So non-process-related structural items might include water pipes for potable water and any other non-process-related pipes and structures. Typical items that would not be eligible for the exemption — refractory brick, boiler tubes, process-related pipes, anodes used in electroplating, grinding wheels, metal working tools, and things of that nature.
With the personal use exemption, chemicals that are used for employee personal use such as refrigerants or air conditioners that are solely for employee comfort, disinfectants used in potable water such as chlorine or phenols used in the medical dispensary are exempt.
Also TRI chemicals that are found in intake water and air used at a facility, as long as the facility is not responsible for them being in the intake water and air are also exempt under TRI. For each TRI chemical for which an activity threshold is exceeded, a form would be required to be submitted to the EPA and to the designated state or tribal authority.
In past years, paper forms were used for this reporting. Currently, most TRI forms are submitted electronically. Relatively few facilities still fill out the paper form. The first part contains facility-specific information about your facility. There are five sections for reporting information about your facility. The second part covers information about the chemical for which your facility is reporting. There are eight sections in part two. The first four sections identify the chemical, how it is used at the facility, and the maximum amount on site.
The next four sections, are what we call the meat of the TRI reporting, and this is where facilities report the actual quantities of the TRI chemicals that were managed as waste. We will now look at each of these sections in more detail. In section one, facilities report the calendar year that the TRI form covers. Note that this is not the year in which the form is submitted. In section two, facilities indicate whether or not they are claiming trade secret information in this report.
In some cases, facilities may feel that reporting on the TRI chemicals that they use and manage as waste could put them at a competitive disadvantage. If facilities can substantiate this claim, there is a process that allows them to submit two forms to TRI — one that includes the actual chemical name, and one in which the actual TRI chemical name is replaced with a generic descriptor.
Only the information in the second form is made available to the public. Before claiming a trade secret, facilities must first obtain approval from the TRI program. Section three is where the form is signed for certification.
Signers are certifying that the information contained on the form is correct to the best of their knowledge. Slide 83 - Facility Identification Section four of Part one of the Form R contains facility name and location information. TRI IDs stay with a facility even if the facility ownership changes. Slide 84 - Facility Identification continued Sections 4. This information is not made available to the public. The public contact is a person who can answer inquiries from the public about the TRI data.
NAICS codes can be found in the website shown here. Slide 85 - Parent Company Information In section five, private sector facilities report information on their parent company, including its name and Dun and Bradstreet number.
The parent company is the highest level of ownership within the United States. In section one, facilities identify the TRI chemicals on which they are reporting. In the public version of the TRI Form R, the facility enters the generic descriptive for the type of chemical in section 1. In this scenario, the facility enters the generic descriptive provided to them in Section 2. Slide 87 - Activities and Uses In section three, facilities report the activities and uses of the TRI chemical at the facility.
Be sure to check all applicable boxes. Slide 88 - Maximum On-Site Amount In section four, facilities report the maximum quantity of the TRI chemical that was on site at any one time during the reporting year. The quantity is reported by entering a code representing a range of pounds of the chemical.
Note that this quantity is comprehensive of all locations and uses of the chemical at the facility including quantities in storage, in the process stream, and in wastes. This is different from Tier two maximum amount on site which includes the weight of the entire mixture and does not include quantities in hazardous wastes.
Slide 89 - Quantity Entering Each Medium In Section five, which is comprised of a number of subsections, facilities report the quantities of the TRI chemical that are released to each environmental medium on-site. Note that beginning in RY, the number of basis of estimates codes has increased to the six shown here. Is the estimate based on data from a continuous monitoring system?
If so, enter a Basis of Estimate code of M1. Is the estimate based on a mass balance calculation? That would be a Basis of Estimate Code of C. E2 is for site-specific emissions factors that are non-published, that were perhaps developed through in-house testing, or were provided by the vendor of your process or pollution control equipment. O is also any other method that is not covered by the other codes. In some cases, the quantity entered on the TRI Form could be based on multiple estimation techniques.
In these cases, enter the basis of estimate code that represents the largest portion of the estimate. Fugitive and non-point emissions include leaks, evaporative losses, building ventilation, and any other air emissions that cannot be traced to a discreet point.
As with all estimates entered in Sections 5 and 6, enter the basis of estimate code that best represents the estimation technique used. In the example shown, a facility knows that it used 5, pounds of a volatile solvent during the reporting year.
They also know that 4, pounds of the solvent were contained in the adhesive product that they manufactured. Using a simple mass balance calculation they are able to determine that 50 pounds of the TRI chemical were released to the air through fugitive emissions. The facility then enters 50 pounds in Section 5. In some cases these emissions may already be monitored or estimated for air permits or other regulatory requirements. In other cases they can be estimated from emissions factors and production data.
An example of an estimate based on a published emissions factor is shown here. A facility combustingtons of coal in a fluidized bed combustor obtained a published emissions factor for mercury in such a system. Facilities enter the name of the water body if it has a name. If it does not have a name, then report the name of the nearest downstream water body that does have a name. In column C, facilities indicate the percent of the total reported in Column A that can be attributed to the stormwater releases.
Because the POTW will conduct further waste management on the discharged chemicals, these discharges are considered offsite transfers, so they are reported Section 6 of Form R. Slide 94 - Calculating Wastewater Discharges Here is an example calculation for wastewater discharges using already existing and available monitoring data. This example is for methanol discharges, where this facility collected samples twice during the reporting year.
The first sample was taken on March 1st, when the chemical was released at a concentration of 1. Converting milligrams per liter and million gallons per day into pounds per day results in 8. Their second sample was taken on September 8th, where they measured the chemical at a concentration of 0.
Calculating that with the appropriate conversion factors again, comes out to 0. The two samples of 8. The number that goes on the Form R is not in pounds per day, but in pounds for the reporting year. So, this quantity must be multiplied by the operating days, say days, to get the total pounds per year. This method is not as accurate because the concentration and the flow rate specific to each sample should stay together.
Underground injection wells are classified and regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Quantities are entered for Class one wells in section 5. Note that if a portion of the TRI chemical that is disposed of to land onsite volatilizes to the air or washes to a water body during the reporting year, that quantity is not reported here, but in the section most appropriate for that medium.
These include any transfers of the TRI chemical to another facility for the purpose of waste management including off-site waste treatment, recycling, energy recovery, or disposal. As in Section 5, any quantity reported in Section 6 that is under 1, pounds AND that is for a non-PBT chemical can instead be represented by one of the range codes shown here.
Also, as in Section 5, basis of estimate codes are required for each quantity entered. Both the total quantity of the amount transferred and the name of the POTW must be entered. In the example shown here, a facility used engineering calculations to determine that it generated wastewater containing pounds of lead particulates during the reporting year. Before being discharged to the POTW, the wastewater underwent a filtration step that was thought to have a 95 percent removal efficiency for this size of particulates.
Slide 99 - Other Transfers Section 6. For each off-site location, the quantity and basis of estimate code associated with each waste management activity are entered. The quantities of TRI chemical sent off-site to be managed as waste are often recorded by facilities as part of their regulatory requirements and recordkeeping systems.
Facilities should take advantage of existing sources of information to assist with developing their estimates for this and other sections of the TRI form R. Slide - Estimating Quantities Released When estimating release and waste management quantities for sections 5 and 6 of Part two of the Form R, be sure to consider all sources and uses of the TRI chemical, not just your main feedstocks. For example, consider chemicals that are used to clean production equipment, fuels, maintenance chemicals, catalysts, and lubricants for machinery.
These all could be sources of TRI chemicals. Reasonable estimates are required by law. However, the best approach is usually facility-specific. The data and approach must be documented and should be consistent. Facilities are required to use their best available information. While measuring and monitoring are not required by TRI, it may be that existing measurements and monitoring data are the best available information.
Facilities need to determine the best reasonable approach to their estimates. Slide - Release Estimates Here are a few helpful hints for estimating release and waste management quantities reported on the Form R. First, consider all sources of information and use the best available information for release and waste management estimates. Be sure to estimate the quantity of the TRI chemical and not the entire waste stream. For example, when using data from a waste manifest that shows the weight of the entire waste mixture sent off-site, be sure to base release and waste management estimates on only the amount of the TRI chemical in that waste mixture.
Be sure to differentiate between your fugitive and your stack air emissions. When reporting for a VOC, or volatile organic compound, be sure to estimate fugitive losses of the chemical — it is unlikely to have zero fugitive air emissions.
Pay attention to the TRI chemical qualifiers and remember that the form of the chemical described in the qualifier is the only form that needs to be considered for TRI. Also, always check your math and document your work. Be aware that errors can carry over from year to year.
Slide - Tools and Data Sources for Release Calculations Where should facilities get the information to calculate their releases and waste management quantities for Form R? A few sources are listed here. Process flow diagrams, monitoring data — again, facilities are not required to collect it for TRI, but many facilities have already collected it for other purposes.
Environmental permit applications are another source — often, permit applications require extensive data collection that may be useful for TRI reporting. The standard Olympic distance of 1. The distance is double that. Another format is relay triathlons, where a team of competitors take turns to compete at a race; each competitor must do a segment of swimming, cycling and running.
Init adopted a 4x4 mixed relay format, where each team has two men and two women. The Youth Olympic Games also has a 4x mixed relay triathlon event. Race organization[ edit ] In general, participation in a triathlon requires an athlete to register and sign up in advance of the actual race.
After registration, racers are often provided a race number, colored swim capand, if the event is being electronically timed, a timing band. Athletes will either be provided or briefed on details of the course, rules, and any problems to look out for road conditions, closures, traffic lights, aid stations.
Racers are generally categorized into separate professional and amateur categories. Amateurs, who make up the large majority of triathletes, are often referred to as "age groupers" since they are typically further classified by sex and age; which offers the opportunity to compete against others of one's own gender and age group.
The age groups are defined in five- or ten-year intervals. In some triathlons, heavier amateur athletes may have the option to compete against others closer to their own weight since weight is often considered an impediment to speed. Depending on the type and size of the race, there may be any of the following methods implemented to start the race. In a mass start, all athletes enter the water and begin the competition following a single start signal. In wave start events, smaller groups of athletes begin the race every few minutes.
An athlete's wave is usually determined either by age group or by predicted swim time. Wave starts are more common in shorter races where a large number of amateur athletes are competing. Racers exit out of the water, enter the transition area, and change from their swim gear and into their cycling gear. Competition and pressure for faster times have led to the development of specialized triathlon clothing that is adequate for both swimming and cycling, allowing many racers to have a transition that consists of only removing their wetsuit, cap, and goggles and pulling on a helmet and cycling shoes.
In some cases, racers leave their cycling shoes attached to their bicycle pedals and slip their feet into them while riding. Some triathletes don't wear socks, decreasing their time spent in transition even more. The cycling stage proceeds around a marked course, typically on public roads. In many cases, especially smaller triathlons, roads are not closed to automobiles; however, traffic coordinators are often present to help control traffic.
Typically, the cycling stage finishes back at the same transition area. Racers enter the transition area, rack their bicycles, and quickly change into running shoes before heading out for the final stage. The running stage usually ends at a separate finish line near the transition area.
In most races, " aid stations " located on the bike and run courses provide water and energy drinks to the athletes as they pass by. Aid stations at longer events may often provide various types of food as well, including such items as energy barsenergy gelsfruit, cookies, soup, and ice. Once the triathletes have completed the event, there is typically another aid station for them to get water, fruit, and other post-race refreshments.
Occasionally, at the end of larger or longer events, the provided amenities and post-race celebrations may be more elaborate. Rules of triathlon[ edit ] See also: Triathlon equipment While specific rules for triathlon can vary depending on the governing body e. Traditionally, triathlon is an individual sport and each athlete is competing against the course and the clock for the best time.
As such, athletes are not allowed to receive assistance from anyone else outside the race, with the exception of race-sanctioned aid volunteers who distribute food and water on the course. Some races also post transition times separately. Other rules of triathlon vary from race to race and generally involve descriptions of allowable equipment for example, wetsuits are allowed in USAT events in the swimming stage of some races when the water temperature is below