An Ethical Question(s) | Carlo Traversi
increase in group tours prompted us to provide a temporary third . Fire Up Your Future, which focuses on career possibilities in . Rock crystal vase, blown, cased, cut, copper- wheel engraved . im meeting of the ICOM Committee for. Conservation William L. Geary, Västervik, Sweden. The J. Paul. Action Directe was put up by Wolfgang Güllich in and become the first 9a the tip from David Mason and Ned Feehally at the Västervik Boulder Meet last year One strange thing from the male qualification was that in the first group you. of Hasselö which dEparts from Västervik, via Gränsö. Castle and Västervik . walkway, cable car, basejump, rock climbing, magic evenings . Västervik art group and a pleasant cafe meeting places during the summer! We offer a rich . ing trails divided up into nine different day-stages) that will take you.
It motivated me a lot, it was giving me positive feelings and I was so happy to be under it. I found it so good for many features: Considering the peculiar geometric shape, it was basically impossible to try the upper moves with the rope, but hanging down I could touch the holds and put the chalk on them.
The second part of the boulder looked fortunately easier than the first part, composed by a single hard dyno to the lip. I really loved this move. Using the rope I could hang down on the both sides of the triangle, I signed all the holds and with the chalk the line seemed to get a bit of life since none tried it for years. Fortunately I could read the sequence correctly and this fact helped me a lot.
I had many doubts about the first move, not only about the beta, but even about the correct starting holds. The only info I had were present on the guidebook and it says to start standing on the little bloc below. I was doubtful, but they seemed to be the most logical ones to try it from the bloc.
I decided to attempt it like that, thinking about the most logical thing to do. Fortunately, he had a ladder and he kindly lent it to me to try the second part of the boulder and make my mental setting more sure about the development of the line. The ladder gave me a huge help, I understood the second part perfectly and I was really sure about it. That days seemed to be perfect and my mind immediately noted this.
Dry weather, wind, cold, ladder, two spotters and four pads which could make the first jump easier. I decided to get my mind as free as I can and I started. Being sure about the landing, I locked the first jump and knowing the upper sequence I went to the top. The pads made a bit of difference but I also felt really better in doing the first move.
This is simply due to the fact that I have been lucky in having a ladder and this thing changed a lot the approach for this line. Few things impressed me about this problem. Has anybody tried blowtorching a slippery foothold to see if the rubber burns and makes the hold better again?
Andrew January 7, at You have changed what the first ascensionist did. This should be minimized, since you are enjoying the work of others. We have progressed to this point because the internet allows us to be anonymous.
And people are not naturally understanding, but become that way through experience and maturity. Climbers are stereo-typically egocentric. One point, climbing shirtless in a cold gym. It depends on the publicity of their actions and where it takes place. If you want to chip holds, blow torch wet rock, manufacture holds, then do it on rock that you own, on land you own, and not on publicly accessible crags. Climbing is also risky. We all know it and we all must be responsible for our own actions and accept the consequences of such risky behavior.
Not sure but that would be nice. One way to progress in that direction is to speak with older climbers and original equippers. Be respectful of the future generation as well. Realize that when you get the send, that is not the end of that line. Among conspecifics, body size shows considerable geographic variability, but no clear patterns could be discerned. There is also limited evidence of clinal variation in life history traits in some species.
The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA Diversity and taxonomy of chimaeroid fishes Chondrichthyes, Chimaeridae At present there are 34 described species of chimaeroid fishes. Taxonomy of this lineage is historically problematic and many species of chimaeroids remain undetermined due to lack of useful characters for species identification. As part of a taxonomic revision of chimaeroid fishes over specimens were examined.
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A total of 35 measurements were taken on each specimen for morphometric analysis. At least 5 described species of chimaeroids are synonymous, 4 new species have been described, and at least 9 additional new species have been discovered.
Status of each species, including several newly described species, and known geographic range, including range extensions for some species are presented. Characters for species determination and phylogenetic analysis are identified. Accurate identification of species is critical for management and preservation of chimaeroids as a bycatch and emerging fishery.
This study emphasizes the instrumental role of systematics research centers, such as museums, as leaders in addressing issues of global biodiversity and conservation.
Nursery areas of elasmobranch fishes in the coastal waters of the British Isles Nursery areas are utilised by many species of elasmobranch fishes and are important habitats for neonatal and juvenile individuals. Nursery areas of coastal elamobranchs are typically in shallower waters than areas inhabited by the adults, and usually provide abundant food resources and protection from predation. Nursery areas have been documented for several species of carcharhinid and sphyrnid sharks, although there have been fewer studies on the nursery grounds of other families.
Additionally, there are few records of elasmobranch nursery grounds in the coastal waters of the British Isles. Groundfish survey data from the English Channel, Irish Sea and Bristol Channel were used to identify those locations where juvenile demersal elasmobranchs and the egg cases of oviparous species e.
Recent data on the macro-epibenthic assemblages within the study areas are used to describe some of the biological characteristics of these juvenile habitats. In the spring of an adult female lemon shark was caught, measured, sampled for DNA analysis, and injected with a PIT tag. The female was judged to be pregnant when caught.
This same female was also caught in April, At the time of her second capture, the female gave birth to 13 offspring, of which 11 were caught, tagged, and sampled. The recapture of this female provides the first definitive evidence that female lemon sharks are returning to give birth at the Bimini nursery ground, and the reproductive cycle can be no longer than biennial for some females.
At two of the four loci, four paternal alleles were observed among the pups, indicating that the littermates were sired by at least two males.
These results suggest that lemon sharks likely have a polygamous mating system. Observation and analysis of this single female therefore provided critical new information regarding the mating and reproduction of a large coastal shark. A size selected plasmid library was constructed from genomic DNA and screened for 10 di- and trinucleotide repeats. Screening yielded 42 positive clones, of which 35 have been sequenced.
Primer pairs were developed for 21 loci, and these are being screened. To date, only five loci have been shown to be polymorphic, suggesting that microsatellite loci in sharks may be less variable than in other vertebrates. Two loci, LS22 and LS30, have been optimized, and at least 90 adult and juvenile lemon sharks from two populations, Bimini, Bahamas, and Marquesas Key, Florida have been genotyped at each locus.
LS22 has 16 alleles and observed heterozygosity of 0. These preliminary data suggest that although application of microsatellite markers in elasmobranchs may require additional screening, these markers can provide an important new tool for shark biologists. Calcification exists in the form of superficial, polygonal deposits of calcium phosphate.
In cross section, they appear block-like and are located subperichondrally. Viable chondrocytes and Liesegang waves could be seen throughout the bodies of calcification. Comparison of select stains permits a study of progressive mineralization. Presumptive sites of mineralization first stain positive with alizarin red then positive with von Kossa.
This suggests the progression from calcium to calcium phosphate as mineralization proceeds. They demonstrate similar developmental and histological characteristics of mineralization in sister taxa.
Regional variation in the stage of mineralization was observed across the tissue. At this time these features are interpreted as architectural and stress related. Studies among vertebrates suggest that thyroid hormones may influence, or be influenced by, the reproductive cycle. Whereas the reproductive cycle in bonnethead shark populations along the southwest coast of Florida has been described, the relationship of thyroid function to reproduction has not been characterized in this species.
Changes in cartilage growth or mineralization? Seasonal increments present in the vertebral cartilage of most elasmobranchs are commonly used to determine age and growth rate in these fishes. However, the physiological process es that gives rise to these structural phenomena are poorly understood. Changes in the appositional growth of vertebral cartilage were examined by histologic and histochemical observations.
Patterns of vertebral mineralization were investigated by energy-dispersive spectrophotometry EDS. Visible differences in matrix synthesis and cellular activity of vertebral cartilage were apparent, and indicated that growth of the vertebral margin was greatest during late spring to early fall. However, there appeared to be no changes in cartilage mineralization associated with season. In fact, concentrations of calcium and phosphorus appeared to be relatively stable throughout the entire vertebral cartilage.
Additional observations using scanning electron microscopy, coupled with these studies, demonstrate that seasonal vertebral increments are directly related to changes in cartilage growth, and that differences in mineral concentration appear secondary to regional cell concentrations.
Sphyrnidae The hammerhead sharks are poorly know species that inhabits coastal and all oceanic waters. The unusual lateral expansion of the head or cephalofoil, is the diagnostic feature of the family.
Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA data provided support for to claim that hammerheads constitute a monophyletic group, but that the evolution of cephalofoil was contrary to the generaly accepted hypothesis.
For this reason this study research the sphyrnids interspecific relationships based on based about morphology and morphometry chondrocranium characters. The description of ontogenetic and morphological variation among species propose an hypothesis to explain the presence and different cephalofoil shapes in the hammerhead sharks.
The technique of phylogeny reconstruction cladistic method was carried out by the maximum parsimony method PAUP 3. The variation among specimens of the same specie is discussed from morphometric view, because certain modifications in shape of the head of sphyrnids can to provide ontogenetic transformational series.
A total of specimens were collected from Almejas bay in the west coast of Baja California and others two fisheries centers in the middle region of the Gulf of California. Particular attention is given to features of the branchial arches and external branchial filaments.
Apparently the embryos utilize histotrophic nutrition in the early development. The external features of these specimens, in comparison with other chondrichthyans embryos, are proposed to stablish the embryonic development of Rhinobatidae. The previous interpretations of the skull of Helodus have been the subject of much debate and are inconsistent with the data for all known Paleozoic chondrichthyan cranial types. Our re-interpretation of Helodus' cranium is presented.
The dorsally flaring orbitonasalis identified by Moy-Thomas is shown to be internal, not superficial. Further, the ethmoidal region is completely roofed over, in a manner consistent with all other euchondrocephalans. The shape and dimensions of the cranium approximate that of iniopterygians. These analyses result in a logical placement of Helodus within the euchondrocephalans, at or near the base of the Holocephalimorpha.
Globular spheritic and prismatic forms of calcification have been confirmed as the same type of mineralization and merely represent different developmental stages. Areolar mineralization, by comparison, is radically different in structure, development and chemical composition. It does not involve hyaline cartilage, but arises through direct mineralization of a centrum comprised of circumferentially arranged fibroblastic cells.
Select morphological and chemical characteristics of areolar mineralizations reveal greater similarities to bone than to the calcified cartilage of terrestrial vertebrates. This, and the differential staining of the tesserae cap compared to that of the body, indicate that selachian calcified cartilage exhibits features of both endochondral and intramembranous bone. Such data suggests reconsideration of the popular paradigms for mineralized tissue development and the phylogenetic relationship of selachian calcified cartilage to the mineralized tissues of the higher vertebrate classes.
Lateral expansion of the head, accompanied by flattening along the dorsal-ventral axis of the expansions, produces a morphological modification known as a cephalofoil.
Specimens, representative of stages from early embryogenesis through parturition, were examined using macrophotography, light microscopy and electron microscopy. Measurements were made of the width of the entire cephalofoil, the length of the right and left lateral extensions, and the total fork length of each embryo.
Changes in chondrocranium morphology, elongation of the optic nerve, expansion of the olfactory sacs, and general neural development were also characterized. Based on our observations, the morphogenetic events that produce the unique bonnethead cephalofoil are initiated early in embryonic development.
Thus, the major morphological modifications of the head are established relatively early in development, whereas the middle and late phases of development involve growth of the cephalofoil relative to growth of the body.
Subgenomic DNA libraries were prepared and screened for di- tri- and tetranucleotide repeat motifs in three sharks: DNA sequences from positive clones were used to identify and characterize microsatellite repeat motifs.
PCR primers were developed and used to amplify loci and screen for allelic diversity within and among putative populations of each species. Amplification of loci in species other than those from which the loci were identified was attempted with some success. Compared to similar studies in other vertebrate taxa, microsatellite loci are relatively scarce in sandbar and blacktip sharks and only slightly more frequent in shortfin mako. Low frequencies of microsatellites occurs in the presence of large genome sizes, ranging from 5.
Many loci averaged fewer than ten uninterrupted repeats per microsatellite motif. There is a positive correlation between the number of uninterrupted repeats per microsatellite motif and allelic diversity in microsatellite loci in sharks.
Myliobatoid rays reproduce via aplacental viviparity. Uterine milk ,or histotroph, produced by uterine villi trophonemata is the sole source of embryonic nutrition once the yolk supply is exhausted through parturition. Previous studies have documented that protein is a major component of histotroph.
To determine protein size and concentration, we collected histotroph from three species of myliobatoid rays: Preliminary results on the size and concentration of proteins in histotroph were obtained in all three species.
Histotroph and serum collected from a gravid southern stingray on day 54 of a day gestation were analyzed via gel filtration, SDS-PAGE, and protein assay. Fractions collected off the gel filtration column yielded a protein concentration of The protein concentrations in the histotroph from the three species were A total of sharks were tagged during 11 sampling trips from July to August The interval between initial release and recapture of sharks ranged from 1 - days.
Recaptured sharks appeared to move randomly within the study site, and distances between initial release site and recapture site ranged from 0 - m. There was no obvious site attachment. Estimates of animal abundance using the Jolly-Seber method gave a range of 93 - sharks during the study period. The Peterson and Fisher-Ford methods provided ranges of - and - respectively. Activity patterns coincided with prey activity periods. Sharks were found to consume polychaete worms and crustaceans.
Lucia, Queensland Australia Spinal deformities in elasmobranchs Three shark species from Australian waters, and two species from North American waters, were found with skeletal deformities. Spinal curves consisted of large scoliotic lateral spinal curvaturelordotic axial spinal curvature and kyphotic humpback curve bends of the vertebral column. Possible causes of these deformities are currently unknown, but may include asymmetrical stresses to the vertebral column, parasites, arthritis, injury, disease, localized tumors or malnutrition.
However, all species show similar curvatures along the vertebral column, suggesting the cause of the deformity is uniform across multiple families and geographic areas.
In many vertebrates, the control region appears to be the fastest evolving locus in the mt genome, and portions of this locus are often used in population and phylogenetics studies. The control region has most extensively been studied in mammals, where it is partitioned into three domains: To better understand the organization and evolutionary dynamics of this locus in vertebrates, we have performed a comparative analysis of control regions from divergent sharks with the mammalian control region.
Our analysis reveals an overall similarity in the structure of the control region between sharks and mammals, and identifies several shared conserved elements TAS, CSBs Like mammals, variability in shark control regions occurs mainly in peripheral domains I and III, with the central domain II exhibiting significant conservation among species. Domain II from sixteen globally distributed blue sharks reveals no sequence variation. The overall similarity in control region structure between sharks and mammals suggests strong functional constraints control evolution of this locus in vertebrates.
Since the cartilaginous skeletons of sharks do not fossilize well, our deductions are often limited to the examination of fossil shark teeth. This is especially true for Tertiary sharks where whole or partially preserved specimens are very few. It is difficult to identify the more recent fossil sharks and to establish relationships to other species, both living and extinct.