Arousal - Wikipedia
1) determine what ____ are placed on the employees. 2) who is ____ ____ sees the relationship between arousal and performance as direct and linear. This relationship between high arousal, low arousal, and performance is described by the Yerkes-Dodson law. According to this law. ables influence this relationship between arousal and performance. of optimal arousal, and examples of specific sport skills is depicted in Table 1.
This word was first used by the Greeks to describe a philosophical inquiry into the nature of things. The use of the term with specific reference to vital activities of healthy humans, which began in the 16th century, also applicable to many current aspects of physiology.
Physiological responses to fight or flight: When the body is initially challenged by a stressor it responds with physiological activation also known as arousal of a defense system to deal with the immediate stressor.
Also referred as the Neuroaxis, is the axis in the central nervous system. The ensuing physiological changes constitute a major part of the acute stress response. Which can often lead to as the fight or flight response.
Anticipated behaviors are actions that are foreseen or predicted to happen in a specific situation due to different environmental factors. Furthermore, they are decided by one's past experiences and knowledge. Anticipated behaviors examples -Someone sitting in the same seat every day during class.
When a loud unexpected noise is created you are startled and flinch. A real life example of cognition is used whenever decision making is involved for example, a real life scenario of a cognitive decision would be when a traffic light is changing from green to yellow. One would either make a cognitive decision to run through the yellow light in hopes you could clear the intersection before the light turned red.
However, one could make a different cognitive decision to stop when they see the yellow light to not run the light before it turned red. A real life example of the effects of physiological arousal on cognition is when you're walking through the woods and you notice a rattlesnake in front of the walkway on the ground.
Yerkes–Dodson law - Wikipedia
You would feel alarmed and scared physiological arousal. Your past experience and knowledge of poisonous snakes and dangerous predators provides the cognition of the situation.
Based on your analysis of your position you label your arousal as fear. Fear is explained to be an emotion that one might expect with alarm, it is also known as something to be afraid of or the feelings of apprehensiveness. Fear works when one senses danger, the brain reacts instantly, sending signals that activate the nervous system. This causes physical responses, such as a faster heartbeat, rapid breathing, and an increase in blood pressure. Blood pumps to muscle groups to prepare the body for physical action like running or fighting.
Skin sweats to keep the body cool. Some people might notice sensations in the stomach, head, chest, legs, or hands. These physical sensations of fear can be mild or strong. A study done by Joan Vickers and Mark Williams  analyzed how a group of elite biathlon shooters handled an experimental task.
The goal was to determine why there might be a failure to perform in high pressure situations. Difficulties come about when trying to test performance pressure, physiological workload, anxiety, and visual attention in a controlled setting. Which is why they decided to test these elite biathlon shooters, due to the easy ability to stimulate the controlled experiment.
In the low pressure stimulation the subjects were only told that the purpose of the test was to simply provide feedback and the fixation on the target at different power output levels. In the high pressure situation the shorter were told that the national team coach was going to observe the shooters, and their shooting percentages would be used to make the national team selections. Both groups were told that prizes would be rewarded to the most accurate shooters. To test physiological arousal that was being used, Vickers and Williams measured each shooters heart rate as well as the perceived exertion.
Arousal and Performance
Trying to determine if the failure to perform to whatever level of skill or ability the person has at the time, also known as choking; was indeed a factor in this test. Physiological arousal was measured and recorded through the athlete's heart rate and rate of perceived exertion. The expectations were for the low pressure and high pressure groups to be more prone to choking compared to those who were able to maintain their heart rates.
The findings showed exactly what was expected, the only exception was that the pressure applied did not necessarily have much of an effect. While it was clear that high pressure stimulations did appear far more anxious than those of low pressure stimulations.
Problem solving is the cognitive process that someone uses to achieve a goal whenever a solution cannot be determined by others. For example, you are with your buddies on a trip and get a flat tire. Everyone looks around nervously because nobody knows how to change a flat.
But then you remember that you took an automotive class in college where you learned to change flat tires. You change the tire and solve the issue with your cognitive problem solving. Cognitively, the utilization of logical analysis and problem solving has been associated with higher levels of life satisfaction, better health, and lower depression in caregivers.
A realistic appraisal and acceptance of the difficult situation is healthy and allows the caregiver to live his or her own life while accommodating the needs of the recipient. Less effective cognitive coping styles include avoidant-evasive, regressive, and an increased use of wishfulness and fantasizing by the caregiver, all of which have been related to higher levels of care burden Hayley et al.
Cognitive appraisal is the stress perceived as imbalance between demands place on the individual and the individual and the individual's resources to cope. Lazarus argued that the experience of stress differs significantly between individuals depending on how they interpret an event and the outcome of a specific sequence of thinking patterns called appraisals.
It also refers to the personal interpretation of a situation that ultimately influences the extent to which the situation is perceived as stressful, process of assessing whether a situation or event threatens our well being, whether there are sufficient personal resources available for coping with the demand of the situation of whether our strategy for dealing with the situation is effective.
The three parts that it can be divided into are primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, and reappraisal. Arousal reflects general physical and psychological activity.
Arousal & Performance
For example, coma is a pathologically low state of arousal whereas agitation is an extremely high arousal. Usually, people are somewhere in between of those two extremes. In sport setting, arousal is often linked to anxiety. Anxiety is a negative emotional state with feelings of worry, nervousness and apprehension that is associated with the arousal and activation of the nervous system.
In general, arousal has two kinds of effects on performance. First, it increases muscle tension and affects co-ordination. Too much tension is detrimental to performance. Second, arousal affects attention. Physiological arousal is how an individual's body changes during arousal.
Physiological arousal entails changes, such as sweaty palms, increased muscle tension, breathing, and heart rate.
Brain arousal is the stages of sleep, awake, and alertness within the brain Deckers, Deckers"psychological arousal refers to how subjectively aroused an individual feels" p. Feelings of psychological arousal includes anxiety, fearfulness, and tension. Behavior is the actions or reactions of an human or nonhuman animal in response to internal or external stimuli.