King Alcinous, along with his wife queen Arete, ruled the land of the Phaeacians. actions even extend to offering his daughter Nausicaa in marriage (although. The court of Alcinous certainly exemplifies aristocratic hospitality. clothing, and bathing materials by Nausicaa, to the elaborate display of gifts, feasts, and entertainment offered by Alcinous and his queen, Arete, Odysseus is given of course, gifts and song play an important role in cementing the guest-host relationship. Athena calms the storm, and Odysseus swims for two days until he nears . Later at night, alone with Alcinous and Odysseus, Arete recognizes.
May you fare well always, O queen, until old age and death come, which are the condition of men. I will return home; but in this house may you rejoice in your children and people and in Alcinous the king. The scene is electric with anticipation, and it is nothing short of stunning that Arete makes no response. We have already noted that Alcinous also makes no immediate response, and we have found good reason for that in an inherited tension that has to do with an old quarrel between Odysseus and Nestor.
But Alcinous was not appealed to directly by Odysseus, and, prodded by the aged retainer Ekheneos, he also reacts to Odysseus's presence well before Arete does. Arete eventually breaks her silence and when she does the illusion that she is Athena Polias has already begun to dissipate. Her identification with Athena Polias is never as strong again once she speaks. This idea has implications for what the ancient image of Athena Polias, which is nowhere described for us, actually was.
For at the moment of supplication Arete is represented as sitting at the hearth, holding the distaff, and spinning. Nausicaa has already told Odysseus that this is how he will find her Odyssey 6.
Arete is described in exactly these terms at her first appearance in the poem as well: She sat at the hearth with her serving women, spinning sea-purple wool from a distaff.
Thus the scene has already been set twice before Odysseus enters the Phaeacian palace, and there is no need to describe it a third time. We already have in mind the figure whose knees Odysseus grasps when he makes his supplication.
Nausicaa - Greek Mythology Link
He only repeated what was commonly said about it, that it fell from heaven. The image itself was doubtless much older, but how old we do not know. It played a central part in traditions about the Cylonian conspiracy of about BC: Iliad 6 offers a parallel for such a full-size seated image of Athena Polias in the Homeric era: Taking the robe fair-cheeked Theano placed it on the knees of beautiful-haired Athena.
One thing is clear: It was very likely of a different order from other images, including those of Athena Polias in Troy and other cities. The question of what this image was should be approached with an open mind. The fourth-century inventories reveal one very important thing about the image itself: This means that its right hand was extended.
In representations of women spinning, the right hand is extended to spin wool drawn from a distaff, which is held at a higher level by the left hand; the pose is seen in this example: Perpetual fire is the essential element here, and from a Greek standpoint perpetual fire could be provided by either a hearth or a lamp.
The hearth probably became a lamp when the aegis and gorgoneion were added to the image itself, perhaps as early as the early sixth century. In front of them Pallas Athena held a golden lamp and made a beautiful light. Right then Telemachus quickly addressed his father: Surely some god is within, one of those inhabiting the wide sky.gnash - i hate u, i love u ft. olivia o'brien [music video]
When Odysseus finishes his appeal to Arete and the rest of the Phaeacians, he sits in the ashes next to the hearth and the fire Odyssey 7. So speaking he sat down by the hearth in the ashes near the fire.
The scene of a suppliant seated in the ashes was presumably a familiar one in the temple of Athena Polias. But when Alcinous, with sacred power, heard this, he took the hand of wise Odysseus, with inventive mind, and raised him from the hearth and sat him on the shining chair. The goddess herself in her temple would of course apparently do nothing during such an act, and that is what Arete does, apparently nothing. It is precisely by doing nothing that she becomes the goddess in this tableau.
Being compared to a god is not unique to Arete Alcinous himself is compared to an immortal when he sits next to her and drinks wine, Odyssey 6.
There are fifty of them and their tasks include grinding corn, weaving, and spinning Odyssey 7. In his palace are fifty servant women, some of whom grind yellow grain on millstones, and others weave fabric and spin wool, seated like the leaves of a tall poplar; liquid oil runs from the close-woven cloth. The passage continues, saying that just as the Phaeacian men excel at seafaring, the women excel at weaving, for Athena has given them, beyond others, knowledge of beautiful crafts and good wits Odyssey 7.
As much as the Phaeacian men are skillful beyond all others at driving a swift ship on the sea, so the women are skillful at weaving; for Athena granted them beyond others understanding of beautiful works and good wits. But it is really Arete whom they emulate in this domain, as is indicated by the two descriptions of her spinning by firelight, in which the maidservants are very much her extension.
In the end, of course, this comes back to Athena herself if Arete plays the part of Athena Polias. Athena herself, however, is not incidental to this story; she manages the episode from beginning to end. Twice more Athena directs events from behind the scenes: Nausicaa does not want him to go all the way into town with her, fearing the comments of the townspeople. Then at once he prayed to the daughter of great Zeus: Grant that I come dear and pitied to the Phaeacians. Odysseus does not know what Athena is doing for him even now, because she does not appear to him openly.
But this is only part of the story. Then at once he prayed to the daughter of great Zeus. So much-enduring shining Odysseus prayed there. This is a complex situation, and it is carefully managed so that the two figures, Athena and Arete, do not interfere with each other.
Indeed Athena, as soon as she has told Odysseus about Arete, removes herself from the scene by flying to Athens, leaving center stage to the figure that she has just introduced. Thus it is not only respect for Poseidon that keeps Athena from appearing openly to Odysseus. The hidden identity of Arete simply would not work if it had to compete with the presence of Athena in her own persona.
Nausicaa has played her part and attention now shifts to Arete. I have focused first on Arete, arguing that she represents Athena as a mother goddess; but Athena is also of course a virgin goddess, and both sides of her seem to be represented by the Phaeacians. When Odysseus reaches shore in Phaeacia and falls asleep, Athena contrives to have Nausicaa find him there and bring him part way to town. In the dream in which she appears to Nausicaa she tells the princess that she must go and do her washing in the morning for her wedding is near: Athena then leaves Scheria and goes to Olympus, and just as her second departure identifies her as Athena the city goddess of Athens, her first departure identifies her as Athena the Olympian.
At once beautiful-throned Dawn came, who awakened her, beautiful-robed Nausicaa. There is another parallel between Arete and Nausicaa themselves, and it is, dramatically, the most striking. The silence that follows his appeal raises the level of tension higher still. Only one other moment in the Phaeacian episode compares with this in intensity, namely when Odysseus supplicates Nausicaa.
The stakes are no less high, for Odysseus has just burst nearly naked onto a group of maidens not long from their baths in the river. He went like a lion bred in the mountains, trusting in its might, which goes forth beaten by rain and wind, and the eyes in it burn; and it goes among the cattle or sheep, or after wild deer; and its stomach commands it, after it has made trial of the sheep, even to enter the strong house; so Odysseus was about to mix with the beautiful-haired maidens, naked as he was; for need had come.
Part 3. Athens
The threat that Odysseus poses is of course clear, given his wild appearance. John Flaxman — This kind of pretence does not delude those who are observant, and if they also are experienced they do not take that as a pretext to begrudge the young their wishes. And that is why Nausicaa could soon climb into the cart, carrying a flask of olive-oil so that she and her maids could, once the washing was done, anoint themselves after bathing; for work and enjoyment are not enemies to be kept apart, but instead, when they are combined, a gentler and richer life comes about.
It was by the pools of the river near the place where Odysseus had landed that the girls had planned to clean their clothes. And after rinsing them all and having spread them out in a row along the sea-shore, they bathed and rubbed themselves with olive-oil, and took a meal by the riverside while the sunshine dried the clothes. And after enjoying their food they began playing with a ball. Odysseus wakes up It was while playing that Nausicaa passed the ball to one of her maids, who missed it, dropping it into the current.
When this happened they all gave a loud shriek, which awoke Odysseuswho had been sleeping under the olive-tree. And he, coming suddenly to his senses, wondered whether he was among lawless savages, or in some place haunted by NYMPHSwho are also to be feared, for all know what happened to Hylas.
So, wishing to see with his own eyes, Odysseusstill begrimed with salt, crept out from under the bushes, carrying just a leafy bough to conceal his naked manhood. This was the gruesome sight that appeared in front of these gentle girls, and when they saw what must have looked like a savage ready to act with his usual brutality, they all escaped in every direction, except for Nausicaa, who stood firm in front of the naked stranger.
For looks may or may not be in accordance with the person, and by checking herself and confronting him, she gave the stranger a chance to explain himself and thereby reveal whether his shabby appearance came from his nature or from other circumstances.
For even kings have a naked body under their clothing, but neither clothing nor body tell everything that can be said about a man. Now Odysseusrightly judging his own predicament, decided not to embrace her knees as a suppliant, lest she might take offence, but instead he deemed it better to keep his distance and plead his case with polite words. And knowing that words reach farther than any physical contact, Odysseus praised her beauty, grace and stature, saying that Nausicaa looked as a goddess, but that if she was a mortal then her parents and her brothers were most lucky, and luckiest of all was the man who would marry her.
And declaring that " I worship as I look. Ordeals sent by Zeus It was then that Nausicaa learned the details of Odysseus ' plight, and having observed his manners, she understood that the man was no fool. And he who thinks by himself and understands beyond appearances does better, for as Nausicaa herself said, this kind of ordeal is often sent by Zeus" Now, it is up to him who suffers to know how to endure; but it is up to those who have the power to soothe the pain to provide relief.
That is why Nausicaa did not care about who or what was behind Odysseus ' afflictions, but instead declared that he, having come to such a country and city as hers, would not want for clothing or whatever else an outcast naturally may expect from whomever he meets. Invulnerable land For it is a greater shame for a state to have outcasts roaming among the citizens than for the outcasts themselves to be deprived of what all mortals need.
But such a land which is proud of taking care of its citizens, protecting also the weak and the outcasts, lives in safety and strength, enjoying the reverence and respect of all nations. And that is why Nausicaa, after having this talk with Odysseuscalled back her frightened maids, saying: Don't tell me you take him for an enemy, for there is no man on earth, nor ever will be, who would dare to set hostile feet on Phaeacian soil.
Odysseus follows Nausicaa's wagon. Drawing by John Flaxman, Fortune and misfortune As it happens, unfortunate wanderers often put to the test the halls of safety, bringing to light by their mere presence the values that have been cultivated in these, and revealing whether those who are prosperous have learned that the outcasts' misfortune commands their care.
For he who is born with a silver spoon in his mouth should be the first to know its value, and say like Nausicaa: Having said this she ordered her maids to provide the guest with food and drink, and bathe him in the river.