What is Plasma? - Donating Plasma
A blood donation occurs when a person voluntarily has blood drawn and used for transfusions Donation may be of whole blood, or of specific components directly (the latter called apheresis). These can occur at a blood bank, but they are often set up at a location in the community such as a shopping center, workplace. . Blood plasma pioneer, English physician Gordon R. Ward show. v · t · e. Main cell types in blood · Myeloid. Contrary to popular belief amongst people unfamiliar with plasma donation, the process is not synonymous with blood donation.
There are two main methods of obtaining blood from a donor. The most frequent is to simply take the blood from a vein as whole blood. This blood is typically separated into parts, usually red blood cells and plasmasince most recipients need only a specific component for transfusions.
A typical donation is millilitres or approximately one U. Historically, blood donors in India would donate only or millilitre and donors in the People's Republic of China would donate only millilitres, though larger and millilitre donations have become more common. This process is called apheresisand it is often done with a machine specifically designed for this purpose.
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This process is especially common for plasma and platelets. For direct transfusions a vein can be used but the blood may be taken from an artery instead.
Blood donation - Wikipedia
This was an early method for blood transfusion and is rarely used in modern practice. The skin over the blood vessel is cleaned with an antiseptic such as iodine or chlorhexidine  to prevent skin bacteria from contaminating the collected blood  and also to prevent infections where the needle pierced the donor's skin.
The donor may also be prompted to hold an object and squeeze it repeatedly to increase the blood flow through the vein.
A mechanical tray agitates the bag to mix the blood with anticoagulants and prevent clotting. The amount of blood drawn varies from millilitres to millilitres depending on the country, but — millilitres is typical. This combination keeps the blood from clotting and preserves it during storage. The plasma from whole blood can be used to make plasma for transfusions or it can also be processed into other medications using a process called fractionation. This was a development of the dried plasma used to treat the wounded during World War II and variants on the process are still used to make a variety of other medications.
ApheresisErythrocytapheresisPlasmapheresisand Plateletpheresis A relatively large needle is used for blood donations. Apheresis is a blood donation method where the blood is passed through an apparatus that separates out one particular constituent and returns the remainder to the donor. Usually the component returned is the red blood cells, the portion of the blood that takes the longest to replace. Using this method an individual can donate plasma or platelets much more frequently than they can safely donate whole blood.
Platelets can also be separated from whole blood, but they must be pooled from multiple donations. From three to ten units of whole blood are required for a therapeutic dose.
Plasmapheresis is frequently used to collect source plasma that is used for manufacturing into medications much like the plasma from whole blood. Plasma collected at the same time as plateletpheresis is sometimes called concurrent plasma. Apheresis is also used to collect more red blood cells than usual in a single donation commonly known as " double reds " and to collect white blood cells for transfusion.
Donated plasma is replaced after 2—3 days. In one study, the range was 20 to 59 days for recovery. Plasmapheresis and plateletpheresis donors can donate much more frequently because they do not lose significant amounts of red cells.Why we need to ban paid plasma blood donations.
The exact rate of how often a donor can donate differs from country to country. For example, plasmapheresis donors in the United States are allowed to donate large volumes twice a week and could nominally donate 83 litres about 22 gallons in a year, whereas the same donor in Japan may only donate every other week and could only donate about 16 litres about 4 gallons in a year.
During whole blood donation, blood is drawn from the inner forearm venipuncture area from the right or left arm.
Humphrey is being given blood plasma after he was wounded by shrapnel in Sicily in August The discovery of fibrinogen by William Henson in ca ibid. Adding citrate and other anticoagulants is a relatively recent advance. Note that, upon formation of a clot, the remaining clear fluid if any is Serum bloodwhich is essentially plasma without the clotting factors.
The use of blood plasma as a substitute for whole blood and for transfusion purposes was proposed in Marchin the correspondence columns of the British Medical Journal, by Gordon R.
Prior to the United States' involvement in the war, liquid plasma and whole blood were used. Blood for Britain[ edit ] The "Blood for Britain" program during the early s was quite successful and popular in the United States based on Charles Drew 's contribution.
A large project began in August to collect blood in New York City hospitals for the export of plasma to Britain. Drew was appointed medical supervisor of the " Plasma for Britain " project.
Blood plasma - Wikipedia
His notable contribution at this time was to transform the test tube methods of many blood researchers into the first successful mass production techniques. Nevertheless, the decision was made to develop a dried plasma package for the armed forces as it would reduce breakage and make the transportation, packaging, and storage much simpler.
One bottle contained enough distilled water to reconstitute the dried plasma contained within the other bottle. In about three minutes, the plasma would be ready to use and could stay fresh for around four hours.
Drew insisted that there was no racial difference in human blood and that the policy would lead to needless deaths as soldiers and sailors were required to wait for "same race" blood. Most of the surplus plasma was returned to the United States for civilian use.