Association between Childhood Obesity and Neighbourhood Accessibility to Fast -Food Outlets: A Nationwide 6-Year Follow-Up Study of. Increases in advertising for nonnutritious foods are linked to high rates of childhood obesity, which increases morbidity and mortality and has substantial. A team of researchers from the Harvard School of Public health (HSPH) and the Children's Hospital in Boston have found that children who.
Studies performed outside the US displayed an even greater heterogeneity in the definitions of fast food utilized. To describe the fast food environment, several different methodologies were used; the most commonly utilized methods included densities, proximities, ratios, and indexes used to characterize the food environment. There was some variability, however, within the density measurements; some studies calculated the number of fast food restaurants within a circular buffer of fixed distances around a reference point such as a residential location or schoolwhile other studies calculated the relative prevalence of fast food restaurants by finding the number of fast food restaurants per fixed unit of population.
What are the Effects of Fast Food on Childhood Obesity?
Finally, only two studies utilized a ratio measure to characterize the food environment; these studies characterized the food environment based on ratios of fast food restaurants to other types of restaurants. A total of three studies [ 252650 ] characterized the fast food environment based on both density and proximity measures. Several studies further described the food environment by incorporating measures of food outlets other than fast food restaurants.
The most commonly included food outlets were full-service restaurants, convenience stores, grocery stores, supermarkets, outdoor food stalls, and cafes. Several studies [ 164950525455 ] also examined the built environment beyond solely food, studying factors like street connectivity, number of bicycle paths, and the number of subway stations.
Fast Food Linked To Child Obesity - CBS News
Associations found between the fast food environment and obesity: The associations found were varied in nature. Once again, the conclusions presented by the studies that found no significant association were varied in nature; for example, Hickson et al.
- Fast Food Linked To Child Obesity
Finally, although some of the studies found no significant relationship between fast food availability and BMI, they found significant relationships between the availability of other food outlets and BMI; for example, Koleilat et al. Also, similar to the studies within the US, the associations found were varied in nature.
For example, Fraser and Edwards [ 25 ], found that within the UK, a significant positive association between fast food availability and obesity rates only when using density measures no significant association found while using proximity measures.Childhood Obesity: Mayo Clinic Radio
Interestingly in the final study performed in rural China [ 21 ], a significant negative relationship was found between the fast food environment and BMI. No such relationship was found elsewhere. Similar to the US studies, although some of the studies found no significant relationship between fast food availability and BMI, they found significant relationships between the availability of other food outlets and BMI.
For example, Larsen et al. Du et al [ 21 ], a longitudinal study performed in rural China, found no significant association between the fast food environment and BMI for men, and found a significant negative association between the fast food environment and BMI for women not found elsewhere.
Associations found between the fast food environment and SES: All of these studies demonstrated similar findings: Examples of such studies include 24,54, For example, although Laxy et al. Studies performed outside the US Similarly, a majority of included studies conducted outside the US incorporated various measures of SES, primarily as a controlled variable.
The findings were similar to the findings of the studies performed in the US: Higher SES was associated with lower obesity rates and lower concentrations of fast food restaurants. Similar to US studies, these findings were present across all the studies that included SES, even those that found no direct associations between the fast food environment and obesity; for example, Fraser et al.
This review sought to specifically compare the relationship between the fast food environment and obesity in the US and other countries throughout the world.
Food intake was assessed using questionnaire. Mixed models were used to examine the associations. Results Among the children, Obesity prevalence was much higher in boys than in girls No significant associations between fast food consumption and health outcomes were detected. Results were similar when Chinese fast food consumption was adjusted for. Conclusions The prevalence of fast food consumption, obesity and hypertension is high among children in major cities in China.
Maternal factors affect child outcomes. Fast food consumption, Obesity, Overweight, Hypertension, Child, Adolescent, China Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased rapidly among Chinese adults and children over the past three decades [ 1 — 5 ]. It has reached There are also indicators of worsening of other health problems like elevated blood pressure BP [ 7 ]. In a recent study based on data collected during —, we reported adverse trends in ideal cardiovascular health indicators among Chinese children and adolescents [ 7 ].
According to a recent report, This is much higher than among American children [ 9 ]. FF is high in unhealthy fats, salt, and sugar, which contributes to obesity and elevated BP [ 11 ] and has been positively associated with the obesity epidemic due to its increasing availability, energy density, and large portions [ 12 — 14 ]. Some studies have reported that sodium intake was associated with elevated systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP both among adults [ 15 — 20 ] and children [ 21 — 23 ].
In Western countries, although a positive association has been suggested between frequent FFC and weight gain in adults [ 24 — 26 ], there is limited and mixed evidence for children [ 27 — 32 ].
Some studies have shown a small association between FFC and increased BMI [ 1227 — 29 ], while others did not detect a significant association [ 30 — 32 ].
Two systematic reviews suggest the need for more studies using larger study samples and adjusting for confounding factors such as parental BMI [ 1213 ]. Some reported a positive association [ 1033 — 37 ], while some did not [ 3839 ]. They are predominately cross-sectional studies and are based on local samples.
To address these research gaps, this study aimed to: Methods Study design and participants The Childhood Obesity Study in China Mega-cities is a longitudinal study aimed at examining the etiology of childhood obesity and chronic diseases in China, especially in its major cities, which have been experiencing rapid economic and social transitions over the past three decades.
Four schools two primary schools and two middle schools were selected at random in each city.