Philip II of Spain - Wikipedia
Mary I (18 February – 17 November ), also known as Mary Tudor, was the Queen of In , Mary married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in . The relationship between Mary and her father worsened; they did not speak to each other for three years. Although. Elizabeth I (7 September – 24 March ) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the major England's defeat of the Spanish Armada in associated Elizabeth with .. For several years she also seriously negotiated to marry Philip's cousin. Philip was King of Spain between and , King of Naples between and , and husband of Elizabeth' half sister Mary I between and her.
However, both remained legally illegitimate. Mary inherited estates in NorfolkSuffolk and Essexand was granted Hunsdon and Beaulieu as her own. For example, the Act of Uniformity prescribed Protestant rites for church services, such as the use of Thomas Cranmer 's new Book of Common Prayer.
Mary remained faithful to Roman Catholicism and defiantly celebrated the traditional Mass in her own chapel. She appealed to her cousin Emperor Charles V to apply diplomatic pressure demanding that she be allowed to practise her religion.
When Mary was in her thirties, she attended a reunion with Edward and Elizabeth for Christmaswhere year-old Edward embarrassed Mary, and reduced both her and himself to tears in front of the court, by publicly reproving her for ignoring his laws regarding worship. His advisers, however, told him that he could not disinherit only one of his half-sisters: Guided by John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberlandand perhaps others, Edward excluded both from the line of succession in his will.
Lady Jane's mother was Frances BrandonMary's cousin and goddaughter. She was warned, however, that the summons was a pretext on which to capture her and thereby facilitate Lady Jane's accession to the throne. Many adherents to the Catholic faith, opponents of Dudley's, lived there. Mary rode triumphantly into London on 3 Auguston a wave of popular support. She was accompanied by her half-sister Elizabeth and a procession of over nobles and gentlemen.
Lady Jane and her husband, Lord Guildford Dudleythough found guilty, were kept under guard in the Tower rather than immediately executed, while Lady Jane's father, Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolkwas released.
Susan Clarencieux became Mistress of the Robes. Edward Courtenay and Reginald Pole were both mentioned as prospective suitors, but her cousin Charles V suggested she marry his only son, Prince Philip of Spain. As part of the marriage negotiations, a portrait of Philip, by Titianwas sent to her in the latter half of Thomas Wyatt the younger led a force from Kent to depose Mary in favour of Elizabeth, as part of a wider conspiracy now known as Wyatt's rebellionwhich also involved the Duke of Suffolkthe father of Lady Jane.
Courtenay, who was implicated in the plot, was imprisoned, and then exiled. Elizabeth, though protesting her innocence in the Wyatt affair, was imprisoned in the Tower of London for two months, then was put under house arrest at Woodstock Palace. Further, under the English common law doctrine of jure uxoristhe property and titles belonging to a woman became her husband's upon marriage, and it was feared that any man she married would thereby become King of England in fact and in name.
England would not be obliged to provide military support to Philip's father in any war, and Philip could not act without his wife's consent or appoint foreigners to office in England. She gained weight, and felt nauseous in the mornings. For these reasons, almost the entirety of her court, including her doctors, believed her to be pregnant.
There was no baby. Michieli dismissively ridiculed the pregnancy as more likely to "end in wind rather than anything else". Following the Spanish capture of Amiens in March the French crown laid siege to it until it managed to reconquer Amiens from the overstretched Spanish forces in September Henry then negotiated a peace with Spain. The war was only drawn to an official close, however, after the Edict of Nanteswith the Peace of Vervins in May The military interventions in France thus failed to oust Henry from the throne or suppress Protestantism in France, and yet they had played a decisive part in helping the French Catholic cause gain the conversion of Henry, ensuring that Catholicism would remain France's official and majority faith — matters of paramount importance for the devoutly Catholic Spanish king.
Ottoman—Habsburg wars Titian ; after the Battle of Lepanto inPhilip offers his short-lived heir Fernando to Glory in this allegory Standard of the tercios morados of the Spanish army under Philip II In the early part of his reign Philip was concerned with the rising power of the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent.
Mary I and Philip II: How related were they? | Digressive Explanations
Fear of Islamic domination in the Mediterranean caused him to pursue an aggressive foreign policy. InTurkish admiral Piyale Pasha captured the Balearic Islandsespecially inflicting great damage on Menorca and enslaving many, while raiding the coasts of the Spanish mainland. Philip appealed to the Pope and other powers in Europe to bring an end to the rising Ottoman threat.
Since his father's losses against the Ottomans and against Hayreddin Barbarossa inthe major European sea powers in the Mediterranean, namely Spain and Venicebecame hesitant in confronting the Ottomans.
The myth of "Turkish invincibility" was becoming a popular story, causing fear and panic among the people. The joint fleet was assembled at Messina and consisted of ships 60 galleys and other vessels carrying a total of 30, soldiers under the command of Giovanni Andrea Dorianephew of the famous Genoese admiral Andrea Doria. On 12 Marchthe Holy League captured the island of Djerbawhich had a strategic location and could control the sea routes between Algiers and Tripoli.
As a response, Suleiman sent an Ottoman fleet of ships under the command of Piyale Pasha, which arrived at Djerba on 9 May The battle lasted until 14 Mayand the forces of Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis who joined Piyale Pasha on the third day of the battle won an overwhelming victory at the Battle of Djerba.
The Holy League lost 60 ships 30 galleys and 20, men, and Giovanni Andrea Doria was barely able to escape with a small vessel. In the Ottomans sent a large expedition to Maltawhich laid siege to several forts on the island, taking some of them. The Spanish sent a relief force, which finally drove the Ottoman army out of the island.
The grave threat posed by the increasing Ottoman domination of the Mediterranean was reversed in one of history's most decisive battles, with the destruction of nearly the entire Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto inby the Holy League under the command of Philip's half brother, Don Juan of Austria. Nevertheless, Lepanto marked a permanent reversal in the balance of naval power in the Mediterranean and the end of the threat of Ottoman control.
In a peace treaty was signed with the Ottomans. Revolt in the Netherlands[ edit ] Main articles: Infantry and cavalry fighting on a slope. Philip's rule in the Seventeen Provinces known collectively as the Netherlands faced many difficulties, leading to open warfare in He appointed Margaret of Parma as Governor of the Netherlands, when he left the low countries for Spain inbut forced her to adjust policy to the advice of Cardinal Granvellewho was greatly disliked in the Netherlands, after he insisted on direct control over events in the Netherlands despite being over two weeks' ride away in Madrid.
There was discontent in the Netherlands about Philip's taxation demands and the incessant persecution of Protestants. There were massacres of civilians in MechelenNaardenZutphen and Haarlem. In a prominent exiled member of the Dutch aristocracy, William the Silent Prince of Orangeinvaded the Netherlands with a Protestant army, but he only succeeded in holding two provinces, Holland and Zeeland.
Rampant inflation and the loss of treasure fleets from the New World prevented Spain from paying its soldiers consistently, leading to the so-called Spanish Fury at Antwerp inwhere soldiers ran amuck through the streets, burning more than 1, homes and killing 8, citizens.
On January 31,the Spanish drove the Dutch patriots out of Namur and then pursued vigorously. At Gemblouxthe retreating rear guard was taken in the flank and routed.
The main Netherlands force was then assaulted by the Spaniards and destroyed. In return for no more than 12 men slain, the Spanish killed or captured as many as 8, The States General of the northern provinces, united in the Union of Utrechtpassed an Act of Abjuration declaring that they no longer recognised Philip as their king.
The southern Netherlands what is now Belgium and Luxembourg remained under Spanish rule. The Dutch gained an advantage over the Spanish because of their growing economic strength, in contrast to Philip's burgeoning economic troubles. The war came to an end inwhen the Dutch Republic was recognised by Spain as independent. His granduncle, the elderly Cardinal Henrysucceeded him as King, but Henry also had no descendants, having taken holy orders.
When the Cardinal-King died two years after Sebastian's disappearance, three grandchildren of Manuel I claimed the throne: In Madrid he established a Council of Portugal to advise him on Portuguese affairs, giving prominent positions to Portuguese nobles in the Spanish courts, and allowing Portugal to maintain autonomous law, currency, and government.
This is on the well-established pattern of rule by councils. Relations with England and Ireland[ edit ] King of England and Ireland[ edit ] Titian portrait of Philip as princeaged about twenty-four dressed in a lavishly decorated set of armour. Philip's father arranged his marriage to year-old Queen Mary I of EnglandCharles' maternal first cousin. His father ceded the crown of Naples, as well as his claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalemto him. Their marriage at Winchester Cathedral on 25 July took place just two days after their first meeting.
Philip's view of the affair was entirely political. Under the terms of the Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of SpainPhilip was to enjoy Mary I's titles and honours for as long as their marriage should last.
All official documents, including Acts of Parliamentwere to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. Coins were also to show the heads of both Mary and Philip. The marriage treaty also provided that England would not be obliged to provide military support to Philip's father in any war. The Privy Council instructed that Philip and Mary should be joint signatories of royal documents, and this was enacted by an Act of Parliament, which gave him the title of king and stated that he "shall aid her Highness The Great Seal shows Philip and Mary seated on thrones, holding the crown together.
Philip's wife had succeeded to the Kingdom of Ireland, but the title of King of Ireland had been created in by Henry VIII after he was excommunicated, and so it was not recognised by Catholic monarchs. The couple's joint royal style after Philip ascended the Spanish throne in was: However, the couple had no children. Mary died in before the union could revitalise the Roman Catholic Church in England.
With her death, Philip lost his rights to the English throne including the ancient English claims to the French throne and ceased to be King of England, Ireland and as claimed by them France.
After Mary I's death[ edit ] Further information: Philip had no wish to sever his tie with England, and had sent a proposal of marriage to Elizabeth. However, she delayed in answering, and in that time learned Philip was also considering a Valois alliance. This union was deemed illegitimate by English Catholics, who disputed the validity of both the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon and of his subsequent marriage to Boleyn, and hence claimed that Mary, Queen of Scotsthe Catholic great granddaughter of Henry VIIwas the legitimate heir to the throne.
For many years Philip maintained peace with England, and even defended Elizabeth from the Pope's threat of excommunication. This was a measure taken to preserve a European balance of power. Ultimately, Elizabeth allied England with the Protestant rebels in the Netherlands. Further, English ships began a policy of piracy against Spanish trade and threatened to plunder the great Spanish treasure ships coming from the new world. English ships went so far as to attack a Spanish port.
We could never have imagined had we not seen it fall out in experience that a man raised up by ourself and extraordinarily favoured by us, above any other subject of this land, would have in so contemptible a sort broken our commandment in a cause that so greatly touches us in honour And therefore our express pleasure and commandment is that, all delays and excuses laid apart, you do presently upon the duty of your allegiance obey and fulfill whatsoever the bearer hereof shall direct you to do in our name.
Whereof fail you not, as you will answer the contrary at your utmost peril. The military campaign was severely hampered by Elizabeth's repeated refusals to send promised funds for her starving soldiers.
Her unwillingness to commit herself to the cause, Leicester's own shortcomings as a political and military leader, and the faction-ridden and chaotic situation of Dutch politics led to the failure of the campaign.
Spanish Armada Portrait from —, by Nicholas Hilliard, around the time of the voyages of Sir Francis Drake Meanwhile, Sir Francis Drake had undertaken a major voyage against Spanish ports and ships in the Caribbean in and In he made a successful raid on Cadizdestroying the Spanish fleet of war ships intended for the Enterprise of England,  as Philip II had decided to take the war to England. A combination of miscalculation,  misfortune, and an attack of English fire ships on 29 July off Gravelineswhich dispersed the Spanish ships to the northeast, defeated the Armada.
He invited Elizabeth to inspect her troops at Tilbury in Essex on 8 August. Wearing a silver breastplate over a white velvet dress, she addressed them in one of her most famous speeches: My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourself to armed multitudes for fear of treachery; but I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a King of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any Prince of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realm.
Elizabeth's hand rests on the globe, symbolising her international power. One of three known versions of the " Armada Portrait ". When no invasion came, the nation rejoiced. Elizabeth's procession to a thanksgiving service at St Paul's Cathedral rivalled that of her coronation as a spectacle.
The English took their delivery as a symbol of God's favour and of the nation's inviolability under a virgin queen. If the late queen would have believed her men of war as she did her scribes, we had in her time beaten that great empire in pieces and made their kings of figs and oranges as in old times.
But her Majesty did all by halves, and by petty invasions taught the Spaniard how to defend himself, and to see his own weakness. Elizabeth had good reason not to place too much trust in her commanders, who once in action tended, as she put it herself, "to be transported with an haviour of vainglory".
The English fleet suffered a catastrophic defeat with 11,—15, killed, wounded or died of disease    and 40 ships sunk or captured. It was her first venture into France since the retreat from Le Havre in Henry's succession was strongly contested by the Catholic League and by Philip II, and Elizabeth feared a Spanish takeover of the channel ports.
The subsequent English campaigns in France, however, were disorganised and ineffective. He withdrew in disarray in Decemberhaving lost half his troops. Inthe campaign of John Norreyswho led 3, men to Brittanywas even more of a disaster.
THE SPANISH ARMADA
As for all such expeditions, Elizabeth was unwilling to invest in the supplies and reinforcements requested by the commanders. Norreys left for London to plead in person for more support. In his absence, a Catholic League army almost destroyed the remains of his army at Craon, north-west France, in May The result was just as dismal. Essex accomplished nothing and returned home in January Henry abandoned the siege in April. Her policy there was to grant land to her courtiers and prevent the rebels from giving Spain a base from which to attack England.
During a revolt in Munster led by Gerald FitzGerald, 15th Earl of Desmondinan estimated 30, Irish people starved to death. The poet and colonist Edmund Spenser wrote that the victims "were brought to such wretchedness as that any stony heart would have rued the same". To her frustration,  he made little progress and returned to England in defiance of her orders.
He was replaced by Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoywho took three years to defeat the rebels. O'Neill finally surrendered ina few days after Elizabeth's death.
Russia Elizabeth continued to maintain the diplomatic relations with the Tsardom of Russia originally established by her half-brother. She often wrote to Ivan the Terrible on amicable terms, though the Tsar was often annoyed by her focus on commerce rather than on the possibility of a military alliance. The Tsar even proposed to her once, and during his later reign, asked for a guarantee to be granted asylum in England should his rule be jeopardised. Upon Ivan's death, he was succeeded by his simple-minded son Feodor.
Unlike his father, Feodor had no enthusiasm in maintaining exclusive trading rights with England. Feodor declared his kingdom open to all foreigners, and dismissed the English ambassador Sir Jerome Boweswhose pomposity had been tolerated by Ivan. Elizabeth sent a new ambassador, Dr. Giles Fletcher, to demand from the regent Boris Godunov that he convince the Tsar to reconsider. The negotiations failed, due to Fletcher addressing Feodor with two of his many titles omitted.
Elizabeth continued to appeal to Feodor in half appealing, half reproachful letters. She proposed an alliance, something which she had refused to do when offered one by Feodor's father, but was turned down.
Trade and diplomatic relations developed between England and the Barbary states during the rule of Elizabeth.