Language and Communication Technologies - Wikipedia
This includes the act of communicating with one another via body language or .. To any native Indian there is a huge difference between /dh and /d, but for. Communication is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through . There is no defined line between a language and a dialect. Triangle of Meaning model to explain the symbol (the relationship between a word). Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is . Greek philosophers such as Gorgias and Plato debated the relation between words, concepts and reality. Gorgias argued that.
The mere exposure effect may also be relevant to propagandistic repetition like the Big Lie. According to prospect theorypeople make different economic choices based on how the matter is framed.
Counting[ edit ] Different cultures use numbers in different ways. The Munduruku culture for example, has number words only up to five. In addition, they refer to the number 5 as "a hand" and the number 10 as "two hands". Numbers above 10 are usually referred to as "many". In this system, quantities larger than two are referred to simply as "many". In larger quantities, "one" can also mean a small amount and "many" a larger amount.
These are non-linguistic tasks that were analyzed to see if their counting system or more importantly their language affected their cognitive abilities.
The results showed that they perform quite differently from, for example, an English speaking person who has a language with words for numbers more than two. For example, they were able to represent numbers 1 and 2 accurately using their fingers but as the quantities grew larger up to 10their accuracy diminished. This phenomenon is also called the "analog estimation", as numbers get bigger the estimation grows. Orientation[ edit ] Language also seems to shape how people from different cultures orient themselves in space.
For instance, people from the Australian Aboriginal community Pormpuraaw define space relative to the observer. Instead of referring to location in terms like "left", "right", "back" and "forward", most Aboriginal Nations, such as the Kuuk Thaayorreuse cardinal-direction terms — north, south, east and west.
Language and thought
For example, speakers from such cultures would say "There is a spider on your northeast leg" or "Pass the ball to the south southwest". In fact, instead of "hello", the greeting in such cultures is "Where are you going? The consequence of using such language is that the speakers need to be constantly oriented in space, or they would not be able to express themselves properly, or even get past a greeting.
Speakers of such languages that rely on absolute reference frames have a much greater navigational ability and spatial knowledge compared to speakers of languages that use relative reference frames such as English. In comparison with English users, speakers of languages such as Kuuk Thaayorre are also much better at staying oriented even in unfamiliar spaces — and it is in fact their language that enables them to do this. Linguistic relativity and the color naming debate Language may influence color processing.
Having more names for different colors, or different shades of colors, makes it easier both for children and for adults to recognize them. Hayakawa and others, which attempted to make language more precise and objective. It makes many basic observations of the English languageparticularly pointing out problems of abstraction and definition. General semantics is presented as both a theoretical and a practical system whose adoption can reliably alter human behavior in the direction of greater sanity.
It is considered to be a branch of natural science and includes methods for the stimulation of the activities of the human cerebral cortex, which is generally judged by experimentation.
In this theory, semantics refers to the total response to events and actions, not just the words. The neurological, emotional, cognitive, semantic, and behavioral reactions to events determines the semantic response of a situation.
This reaction can be referred to as semantic response, evaluative response, or total response. Its proponents claim that dogmatic thinking seems to rely on "to be" language constructs, and so by removing it we may discourage dogmatism. Neuro-linguistic programmingfounded by Richard Bandler and John Grinderclaims that language "patterns" and other things can affect thought and behavior. It takes ideas from General Semantics and hypnosisespecially that of the famous therapist Milton Erickson.
Many do not consider it a credible study, and it has no empirical scientific support. Advocates of non-sexist language including some feminists say that the English language perpetuates biases against women, such as using male-gendered terms such as "he" and "man" as generic. Many authors including those who write textbooks now conspicuously avoid that practice, in the case of the previous examples using words like "he or she" or "they" and "human race".
Various other schools of persuasion directly suggest using language in certain ways to change the minds of others, including oratoryadvertisingdebatesalesand rhetoric. Linguistics is now a highly technical subject; it embraces, both descriptively and historically, such major divisions as phoneticsgrammar including syntax and morphologysemanticsand pragmaticsdealing in detail with these various aspects of language.
Communication - Wikipedia
Historical attitudes toward language As is evident from the discussion above, human life in its present form would be impossible and inconceivable without the use of language. People have long recognized the force and significance of language. Naming —applying a word to pick out and refer to a fellow human being, an animal, an object, or a class of such beings or objects—is only one part of the use of language, but it is an essential and prominent part.
In many cultures people have seen in the ability to name a means to control or to possess; this explains the reluctance, in some communitieswith which names are revealed to strangers and the taboo restrictions found in several parts of the world on using the names of persons recently dead. Such restrictions echo widespread and perhaps universal taboos on naming directly things considered obscene, blasphemous, or very fearful.
Perhaps not surprisingly, several independent traditions ascribe a divine or at least a supernatural origin to language or to the language of a particular community.
So out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the air, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man called every living creature, that was its name. A similar divine aura pervades early accounts of the origin of writing.
The Norse god Odin was held responsible for the invention of the runic alphabet. The inspired stroke of genius whereby the ancient Greeks adapted a variety of the Phoenician consonantal script so as to represent the distinctive consonant and vowel sounds of Greek, thus producing the first alphabet such as is known today, was linked with the mythological figure Cadmuswho, coming from Phoenicia, was said to have founded Thebes and introduced writing into Greece see Phoenician language.
By a traditional account, the Arabic alphabettogether with the language itselfwas given to Adam by God.
The later biblical tradition of the Tower of Babel Genesis Courtesy of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna The origin of language has never failed to provide a subject for speculation, and its inaccessibility adds to its fascination. But people have tried to go farther, to discover or to reconstruct something like the actual forms and structure of the first language.
Language - Wikipedia
This lies forever beyond the reach of science, in that spoken language in some form is almost certainly coeval with Homo sapiens. The earliest records of written language, the only linguistic fossils humanity can hope to have, go back no more than 4, to 5, years.
On several occasions attempts have been made to identify one particular existing language as representing the original or oldest tongue of humankind, but, in fact, the universal process of linguistic change rules out any such hopes from the start. The Greek historian Herodotus told a possibly satirical story in which King Psamtik I of Egypt reigned — bce caused a child to be brought up without ever hearing a word spoken in his presence.
In Christian Europe the position of Hebrew as the language of the Hebrew Bible Old Testament gave valid grounds through many centuries for regarding Hebrewthe language in which God was assumed to have addressed Adam, as the parent language of all humankind. Such a view continued to be expressed even well into the 19th century.
Only since the mids has linguistic science made sufficient progress finally to clarify the impracticability of speculation along these lines. When people have begun to reflect on language, its relation to thinking becomes a central concern.
Several cultures have independently viewed the main function of language as the expression of thought. Such an attitude passed into Latin theory and thence into medieval doctrine. Medieval grammarians envisaged three stages in the speaking process: Rationalist writers on language in the 17th century gave essentially a similar account: Such a view of language continued to be accepted as generally adequate and gave rise to the sort of definition proposed by Henry Sweet and quoted above.
The main objection to it is that it either gives so wide an interpretation to thought as virtually to empty the word of any specific content or gives such a narrow interpretation of language as to exclude a great deal of normal usage. A recognition of the part played by speaking and writing in social cooperation in everyday life has highlighted the many and varied functions of language in all cultures, apart from the functions strictly involved in the communication of thought, which had been the main focus of attention for those who approached language from the standpoint of the philosopher.
These thinkers were concerned with the origin and development of language in relation to thought in a way that earlier students had not been. The medieval and rationalist views implied that humans, as rational, thinking creatures, invented language to express their thoughts, fitting words to an already developed structure of intellectual competence.
- Language and Communication Technologies
The relations between thought and communication are certainly not fully explained today, and it is clear that it is a great oversimplification to define thought as subvocal speech, in the manner of some behaviourists.
But it is no less clear that propositions and other alleged logical structures cannot be wholly separated from the language structures said to express them. Even the symbolizations of modern formal logic are ultimately derived from statements made in some natural language and are interpreted in that light.
The intimate connection between language and thought, as opposed to the earlier assumed unilateral dependence of language on thought, opened the way to a recognition of the possibility that different language structures might in part favour or even determine different ways of understanding and thinking about the world.
All people inhabit a broadly similar world, or they would be unable to translate from one language to another, but they do not all inhabit a world exactly the same in all particulars, and translation is not merely a matter of substituting different but equivalent labels for the contents of the same inventory. From this stem the notorious difficulties in translation, especially when the systematizations of science, law, moralssocial structure, and so on are involved.
The extent of the interdependence of language and thought—linguistic relativity, as it has been termed—is still a matter of debate, but the fact of such interdependence can hardly fail to be acknowledged. Ways of studying language Languages are immensely complicated structures. One soon realizes how complicated any language is when trying to learn it as a second language. Likewise, ongoing work in the study of language has underscored just how much effort is needed to bring palpable fact within systematic statement.
This article proposes simply to give a brief outline of the way language or languages can be considered and described from different points of view, or at different levels, each contributing something essential and unique to a full understanding of the subject.
A more detailed treatment of the science of linguistics can be found in the article linguistics. Phonetics and phonology The most obvious aspect of language is speech. Speech is not essential to the definition of an infinitely productive communication system, such as is constituted by a language. But, in fact, speech is the universal material of most human language, and the conditions of speaking and hearing have, throughout human history, shaped and determined its development.
The study of the anatomyphysiologyneurologyand acoustics of speaking is called phonetics ; this subject is dealt with further below see Physiological and physical basis of speech. Articulatory phonetics relates to the physiology of speech, and acoustic phonetics relates to the physics of sound waves—i. Created and produced by QA International. But, from a rather different point of view, speech sounds are also studied in phonology.
Spoken language makes use of a very wide range of the articulations and resultant sounds that are available within the human vocal and auditory resources. Far fewer general classes of sounds are distinctive carry meaning differences in any language than the number of sounds that are actually phonetically different.
The English t sounds at the beginning and end of tot and in the two places in stouter are all different, though these differences are not readily noticed by English speakers, and, rightly, the same letter is used for them all.
Similar statements could be made about most or all of the other consonant and vowel sounds in English. What is distinctive in one language may not be distinctive in another or may be used in a different way; this is an additional difficulty to be overcome in learning a foreign language.
Cultural Anthropology/Communication and Language
In Chinese and in several other languages loosely called tone languages, the pitchor tone, on which a syllable is said helps to distinguish one word from another: Languages differ in the ways in which consonant and vowel sounds can be grouped into syllables in words. English and German tolerate several consonants before and after a single vowel: Italian does not have such complex syllables, and in Japanese and Swahili, for example, the ratio of consonant and vowel sounds in syllables and in words is much more even.
Grammar Another component of language structure is grammar. There is more to language than sounds, and words are not to be regarded as merely sequences of syllables. The concept of the word is a grammatical concept; in speech, words are not separated by pauses, but they are recognized as recurrent units that make up sentences.