Relationship between structure and function of chloroplast in spirogyra

Plastids of Eukaryotic Cells: Types, Structure and Function

relationship between structure and function of chloroplast in spirogyra

Types of SPIROGYRA its occurance, cell structure and reproduction in Sub-order Darves () studied chloroplast of Spirogyra with the help of electron microscope. It reveals the In this case, ppper cell functions as male gametangium. Structure of Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts found in higher plants are generally biconvex or planoconvex shaped. Chloroplasts can be found in the cells of the. A chloroplast is a basic organelle that in a sense is one of the most important organelles to us, and we don't even have them! In this lesson, we.

The protoplast of the cells form gametes that fuse with the gametes of other cells. If such fusion does not happen, the gametes reproduce asexually, and they are called azygospores. Sexual reproduction in spirogyra can be of two types: In scalariform conjugation, two filaments come together and lie side by side. The mucilage of the cell walls holds them together. The cells of each filament develop small tube-like structures that fuse together to form conjugation canals.

relationship between structure and function of chloroplast in spirogyra

The male gametes of one filament travel through these canals and fuse with the female gametes in the other filament, to form zygotes, which are oval or circular. After conjugation, one filament becomes empty, and the other has zygotes.

Spirogyra - Wikipedia

Once the zygotes are released, the parent filaments die. The zygotes wait for favorable conditions to germinate. Scalariform Conjugation In lateral conjugation, the contents of adjacent cells act like male and female gametes. So the adjacent cells of the same filament develop conjugation tubes. There are two types of lateral conjugation - direct and indirect. The style of conjugation canal formation differs in these two methods. In direct lateral conjugation, conjugation canals develop when the end walls of the adjacent cells lose contact with their middle lamella.

relationship between structure and function of chloroplast in spirogyra

In other words, the adjacent cells fuse through the middle lamella. In case of indirect lateral conjugation, the cells that act like male gametes form separate conjugation canals that connect with their adjacent cells, which act like female gametes.

Chloroplasts - Structure

In both cases, the male gametes enter their adjacent cells and fuse with the female gametes. After conjugation, alternate cells of the same filament have zygotes and others will be empty. The internodal cell of the green alga Chara possesses several hundred chloroplasts. The shape of a chloroplast varies from species to species. It may be cup-shaped e. The chloroplasts are usually found with their broad surfaces parallel to the cell wall. They can reorient in the cell under the influence of light.

For example, gathering along the walls parallel with the leaf surface under low or medium light intensity.

relationship between structure and function of chloroplast in spirogyra

Under damaging, very high light intensity, they can orient themselves perpendicular to the leaf surface. In many algae, the chloroplast may occupy almost the whole length of the cell, such as in green alga Spirogyra, where it may reach a length of 1 mm. A chloroplast has three types of membranes enclosing three types of compartments.

Plastids of Eukaryotic Cells: Types, Structure and Function

Both the membranes are separated by a fluid-filled inter-membrane space of nm width. The outer membrane is freely permeable due to the presence of porin proteins, while the inner membrane is semipermeable. Sometimes extensions of outer membrane called stromules found to connect adjacent chloroplasts.

The inner membrane encloses a fluid-filled space called stroma, which is analogous to the mitochondrial matrix. The stroma contains a membrane system which consists of many flattened, fluid-filled sacs called thylakoids or lamellae. About thylakoids are stacked like a pile of coins forming grana.

Spirogyra | green algae |

In a typical chloroplast, as many as grana may be present. Adjacent grana are interconnected by stroma lamella or frets.

The C4 plants — maize, sugarcane- possess two type of chloroplasts i. The thylakoid membrane system carry four protein assemblies i. Green algal chloroplasts are characterized by their pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b which give them their green color. The chloroplastidan chloroplasts, or green chloroplasts, are another large, highly diverse primary chloroplast lineage.

relationship between structure and function of chloroplast in spirogyra

Their host organisms are commonly known as the green algae and land plants. Chloroplastidan chloroplasts have lost the peptidoglycan wall between their double membrane, leaving an intermembrane space. Green algae and plants keep their starch inside their chloroplasts, [14] [35] [38] and in plants and some algae, the chloroplast thylakoids are arranged in grana stacks. Some green algal chloroplasts contain a structure called a pyrenoid[14] which is functionally similar to the glaucophyte carboxysome in that it is where RuBisCO and CO2 are concentrated in the chloroplast.

Helicosporidium is a genus of nonphotosynthetic parasitic green algae that is thought to contain a vestigial chloroplast. It is not clear whether that symbiont is closely related to the ancestral chloroplast of other eukaryotes. Chromatophores cannot survive outside their host. These chloroplasts are known as secondary plastids. Diagram of a four membraned chloroplast containing a nucleomorph. The genes in the phagocytosed eukaryote's nucleus are often transferred to the secondary host's nucleus.

relationship between structure and function of chloroplast in spirogyra

Euglenophytes Euglenophytes are a group of common flagellated protists that contain chloroplasts derived from a green alga. Photosynthetic product is stored in the form of paramylonwhich is contained in membrane-bound granules in the cytoplasm of the euglenophyte.