# Relationship between value and duration of construction projects

gross floor area, at the level of significance (p-value) of duration of project time of a construction project is basically a The model also indicates that relationship between duration of a construction. The cost borne by the contrac- ment on what project qualities affect the Con- over, the log–log relationship between time and cost was struction price indices The values of B in potential application in assuming construction durations at the. estimate the length of time that needed to complete a construction project had been equation, the relationship of time and cost of a project with contract value.

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**Project Management - Crashing - Example 1**

Introduction s of the twentieth century [18], was described by the following formula, later referred to as Bromilow's time—cost Developing decision support tools based on records of past model: Interestingly, databases containing records of where L is the the number of working days from the project duration and project schedules are rare [8]. The form of the time—cost regression function 1 n Corresponding author. The cost borne by the contrac- ment on what project qualities affect the parameters of the tor might be a more adequate measure, undistorted by relationship, even in the case of similar projects.

However, variables other than cost e. However, it is worth mentioning that, with few excep- Any statistical time—cost model is based on information tions [28,29], cost was usually the most important independent on projects completed in different locations and at different variable present in those multiple regression models.

Therefore, costs need to be made comparable. This fact can be observed in differences between functions to estimating construction time on the basis of cost bids in public procurement procedures. In Poland, they are [18,32], so they assume that it is easier to estimate construction expressed by an average bid discrepancy factor Wz [41]: There are many spectacular examples of construc- tion project budget miscalculations [33—36].

Therefore, there are reasons to question planned cost Therefore, one cannot be sure that using statistical price in the role of independent variable for planning construction indices to bring project costs to the same level is likely to time.

Moreover, it occurs that predictability of cost is generally no produce reliable results. Table 1 compares results of The above observations speak against using construction some surveys on this subject, though limited to New Zealand cost as a predictor of time. However, Bromilow's model seems and UK [4,39,40]. This provides more arguments against using not sensitive to cost miscalculation. Table 2 illustrates the cost as a predictor of time. This price was generally assumed to be an values stipulated in the contract: Source Project type Share of projects: Subgroup R2 between 0.

The values of B in potential application in assuming construction durations at the models presented in the literature range from 0. The reason may be that the time—cost functions tion of a time—cost regression model, and tests on its were developed on the basis of relatively small samples of predictive ability.

Method buildings and engineering structures. Moreover, the samples were picked at random from the population of projects and The assumed form of regression function was linear: This information is missing in most should be used to estimate its parameters, i.

The method requires that the following conditions are met [42,43]: Investigation of time—cost relationship of Polish road projects — the number of observations, n, is to be greater than the number of parameters—there are two parameters and 2. The analysis concerned solely the construction phase. Homo- of works including all necessary additional works and scedasticity of residuals was checked by analyzing residual change orders. In the process of constructing the regression model, potential outliers were not removed unless their presence — as-planned cost CPL—the client's estimate-based construc- violated the assumptions of the least squares method.

It was tion budget assumed by the client until the moment of assumed that the fact of an observation being an outlier was receiving bids and signing the contract, not a result of measurement error i. The sample The sample comprised cases: Predictability of duration and cost of the mented with change orders and contract annexes, if applic- sample projects able.

The data were obtained directly from public clients departments of the national and regional road agencies as In order to check if the potential independent variable, i.

Predictability of construction Fig. Thus, a third duration—cost regression function was checked: In accordance with the results presented in the literature, the bigger the cost, the longer the duration, but the rate of duration growth drops with the growth of cost.

All three models described by Eqs. Table 4 presents the cost CPL. However, as obtained from the analyses of the results of calculations. Thus, the actual cost was selected to be the independent variable in further analyses.

The parameters of the model were suggest that there exists a correlation between ln C and ln L. Homoscedas- city of residuals was checked by visual analysis of scatter Fig.

Table 4 — Summary of regression calculations, model described by Eq. This is a serious shortcoming. Therefore, this model was rejected.

The model relating square root of duration with natural logarithm of cost by quadratic equation Eq. For the sake of statistical correctness, his model was also rejected.

Quality of the time—cost model Judging by the scatter diagram presented in Fig. The maximum premium is 7. Bangladesh has a basic healthcare infrastructure.

### Time–cost relationship for predicting construction duration | Urban Shop Popayan - badz.info

The objectives of the Health and Population Program Project are to achieve better access to essential services for the poor, lower maternal mortality and morbidity, and continued improvements in child health and family planning.

Reorganization and reform of public services are expected to enable the government to improve the quality and utilization of its system and to allocate its limited resources more cost-effectively. The project components are: Both the World Bank and Asian Development Bank provide credits to the government for construction of projects related to health services. Review of the literature A relationship between the duration and cost of construction projects was first mathematically established by Bromilow He analyzed the time-cost data for a total of building projects in Australia and presented the following mathematical model to predict the construction time of a project: The model indicates that the duration time of a construction project is basically a function of its total cost.

It provided a basis for all parties concerned with the building process to establish probable construction time for a project, given the estimated cost of the project. Taking a cue from Bromilow, a few other studies have been performed to make similar predictions for either a specific sector of construction or construction industries, in general, around the world.

Ireland replicated the study to predict construction time for high-rise buildings in Australia; Kaka and Price conducted a similar survey both for buildings and road works in the United Kingdom; Kumaraswamy and Chan investigated the effect of construction cost on time with particular reference to Hong Kong; and Chan did a similar research for Malaysian construction industry. Limitations of the Study Completion of construction projects is affected by numerous factors apart from the cost.