Ijtihad - Wikipedia
Ijtihad is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a .. The relationship between the mujtahids and muqallids continues to address and solve the contemporary legal issues. demonstrated the continuing creativity and dynamism of Islamic legal thinking in the post-formative period. strengthening one's relationship with Allah, finding the truth and serving the society. usage of lawful means, the ethical and moral system, ijtihad ( independent legal . of thinking in enhancing creativity, as is emphasized in the Qur'an. closure of the gate of ijtihad, how important the concept of ijtihad is. .. upraise their conditions with the help of critical thinking were not remarkable at all. This is is a developing entity and human actions, relationships and activities are ever .
The Prophet thereupon patted his back and told him he was right. It was the duty of the educated jurists to come to a ruling that would be in the best interest of the Muslim community and promote the public good. As religious law continued to develop over time, ra'y became insufficient in making sure that fair legal rulings were being derived in keeping with both the Qur'an and Sunna.
However, during this time, the meaning and process of ijtihad became more clearly constructed. Ijtihad was "limited to a systematic method of interpreting the law on the basis of authoritative texts, the Quran and Sunna," and the rulings could be "extended to a new problem as long as the precedent and the new situation shared the same clause.
Mujtahid is defined as a Muslim scholar that has met certain requirements including a strong knowledge of the Qur'anSunnaand Arabic, as well as a deep understanding of legal theory and the precedent; all of which allows them to be considered fully qualified to practice ijtihad. They claimed that instead of looking solely to previous generations for practices developed by religious scholars, there should be an established doctrine and rule of behavior through the interpretation of original foundational texts of Islam—the Qur'an and Sunna.
Islamic modernism Starting in the middle of the 19th century, Islamic modernists such as Sir Sayyid Ahmed KhanJamal al-din Al-Afghaniand Muhammad Abduh emerged seeking to revitalize Islam by re-establish and reform Islamic law and its interpretations to accommodate Islam with modern society.
They are very much not divine or immutable, and have no more legal justification to be part of the sharia than the adaat of Muslims living beyond the home of the original Muslim in the Arab Hejaz. The ummah was no longer a homogenous group but comprised of various cultural communities with their own age-old customs and traditions. In Indonesia, following considerable debate among the ulemaIndonesian adaat "become part of Sharia as applicable in that country". Asghar Ali Engineer argues that while the Arab adaat the Quran was revealed in was "highly patriarchal" and still informs what is understood as sharia, the "transcendental Quranic vision" is for "absolutely equal rights" between genders and should guide ijtihad of sharia.
They criticize taqlid and believe ijtihad makes modern Islam more authentic and will guide Muslims back to the Golden Age of early Islam. Salafis assert that reliance on taqlid has led to Islam 's decline.
The Muslim Brotherhood holds that the practice of ijtihad will strengthen the faith of believers by compelling them to better familiarize themselves with the Quran and come to their own conclusions about its teachings.
But as a political group the Muslim Brotherhood faces a major paradox between ijtihad as a religious matter and as a political one. Ijtihad weakens political unity and promotes pluralism, which is also why many oppressive regimes reject ijtihad's legitimacy.What is Creative Thinking by Sandeep Maheshwari - Hindi
He criticized the Saudi regime for disallowing the "free believer"  and imposing harsh restrictions on successful practice of Islam.
Thus, Bin Laden believed his striving for the implementation of ijtihad was his "duty" takleef. The female equivalent is a mujtahida. In general mujtahids must have an extensive knowledge of Arabic, the Qur'an, the Sunnahand legal theory Usul al-fiqh.
Scholars may differ about problems concerning science, but they are unanimous as regards the need for a particular weltanschauung world-view for the birth, growth and blossoming of science. Science cannot develop in an atmosphere vitiated by obscurantism, dogmatism, fanaticism, irrationalism and intolerance.
Science needs an intellectual environment whose keynote is enlightenment with rationalism, pluralism, and humanism as the driving force. Historically, it was the Renaissance which prepared the ground for the emergence of modern science. The Dark Age, which preceded the Renaissance in Europe, was dominated by scholasticism with philosophy as the handmaiden of theology.
Bacon compared the scholastics to the spiders, content to weave cobwebs, ignoring the universe and what was happening around them. Modern science had to make way by routing scholasticism.
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It was Descartes who performed this task. He was not only the founder of modern philosophy but also, along with Galileo and Newton, one of the creators of modern science. He started off his intellectual odyssey by the dictum: It does not take anything for granted. It puts to doubt all dogmas and certainties.
The beliefs of a scientist are tentative not final. They are not based on authority but on evidence. PO, hospital has no patients or doctors. PO, hospital has no doors or beds. Is relationship between 2 objects, 2 parties or 2 people. A Lecturer teaches students, PO, a student teaches lecturer. A Patient goes to clinic, PO, a clinic goes to patients. In the zoo, people watch animals, PO, animals watch people. For exaggerate to increase or to decrease.
Something that can be counted or measures. You are dealing with numbers, figures and dimensions. Do not reach the zero, because when become zero it means the escape method. Classroom has 2 doors. PO, classroom should have 10 doors.
PO, classroom should have 1 door. Distort the arrangement, procedures and steps. If it is only 2 relationships, the distortion becomes reverse.
Creative Thinking & Problem Solving (RKGS ) Notes. | Faith is The Pearl Of Life
Has relationship between many parties. Distortions and reverse may overlap. PO, you take medicine before you see the doctor. PO, you attend to the class before you register it. PO, you drive the car before you start it. Wish to have something that is impossible. PO, I wish I can fly. PO, I wish everyday is holiday. PO, I wish I remain 17 years old. A technique used in order to move forward in exploring ideas and possibilities.
To apply the movement technique efficiently, you have to suspend the judgment and move along the possibilities. It is the willingness to the person to move forward towards generating ideas after he has made a provocation. Try to extract and derive any feature, concept, aspect, principle or idea from the provocation that have been made.
Keep extracting from the different aspects, other ideas or features trying to narrow down the scope looking for practical and useful idea. Consist of selecting the positive aspect of the provocation and try to move in order to get useful ideas. Try to look for benefits and positive aspect.
Try to look ways for achieving some practical term. Move forward in exploring ideas through focusing in difference. Try to compare the provocation with the old way of doing things. List down the differences. Look around for special circumstance that would give value to the PO and then try to generate the ideas.
Try to study the situation and see in what conditions, time, place from the PO, can give a value and then move forward in generating ideas. In order to move forward in generating ideas, you might use your own imagination even if it appears unrealistic. Try to imagine the situation that is given to you, like watching a film moving before your eyes.
Try to visualize what would happen instant by instant and try to observe. Try to imagine the provocation as being put into effect. Try to pick up some events, ideas etc. Thinking styles in the Quran: Asking question is 1 of the most effective tools in teaching and learning which leads to new ideas and concept.
Only those who read Quran in proper way will internalize this inquisitive thinking. Three types in terms of the answers: Questions where the answer is given to provide new information. Questions where the answer is clear and obvious to every reader hence the objective is to remain or to affirm facts.
Questions where the answer is not given as it requires thinking and reflection to arrive at the answer. More than questions can be found in Quran. Sometimes the Quran does not give the answer directly because it is a clear to us Rhetorical questions and sometimes answer are also provided in order to clarify the problem or phenomena.
Once Ibnu Abbas knowledgeable companionwas asked about how he managed to cover a wide spectrum of knowledge in a short period of time, he replied: It can be divided into the following stages: Allah the Almighty says: Then after the distress, He sent down security for you.
Ijtihad » What is Independent Thinking?
Slumber overtook a party of you, while another party was thinking about themselves as How to save their own selves, ignoring the others and the Prophet and thought wrongly of Allah — the thought of ignorance.
The concept of reliance tawakkal upon Allah. Two men of those who feared Allah and on whom Allah had bestowed his Grace said: A metaphor is described as: The word refers to the comparison of the terms on the basis of similarity.
It is a device for seeing something in terms of something else.
It is also called as parable. Encouraging and promoting good deeds. Allah gives manifold increase to whom He wills: Stressing and affirming the oneness of Allah. Praise be to Allah!
But most of them have no knowledge Az —Zumar: Proving something which is beyond the reach of human perception such as resurrection. Discouraging evil acts by making them appear ugly in the sight of humankind. Enhances the thinking ability of man in matters of natural sciences: How natural milk is formulated. And landmarks signposts, during the day and by the stars during the nightthey mankind guide themselves An Nahl: Another issue in sciences is the creation of mankind.
If you are in doubt about the Resurrection, then verily! We have created you i. Adam from dust, then from a Nutfah mixed drops of male and female sexual discharge i. And we cause whom we will to remain in the wombs for an appointed term, then we bring you out as infants,  then give you growth that you may reach your age of full strength. And among you there is he who dies youngand among you there is he who is brought back to the miserable old age, so that he knows nothing after having known.
And you see the earth barren, but when we send down water rain on it, it is stirred to lifeit swells and puts forth every lovely kind of growth. And surely, the Hour is coming, there is no doubt about it, and certainly, Allah will resurrect those who are in the graves Al Hajj: Objectivity means expressing claims, and judgments based on proofs and evidence, based on certainty and not on doubt or conjecture to avoid bias, personal interest or whims in forming opinions and giving judgment.
Can be divided into various aspects: Seeking evidence to prove a claim.