Philosophy: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle (video) | Khan Academy
Kids learn about the Philosophers of Ancient Greece. Socrates introduced political philosophy and got the Greeks to start thinking hard about morals, good Aristotle was a student of Plato, but didn't necessarily agree with all that Plato said. Philosophy: The Athenian Philosophers: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle Born in Athens around BCE, Socrates lived during the period of the city's greatest. The ancient Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle may seem like the our relationships, and our culture is between our inner Plato and inner Aristotle. connected Athenian family until he met a man named Socrates, who.
He was worried, well, what if the people voting aren't educated to make the types of decisions?
Maybe they can be manipulated by a demagogue, someone who just tells 'em exactly what they want to hear. And so he was a bit of a controversial figure, especially as you get to the end of the Peloponnesian War.
Remember, Athens loses the Peloponnesian War. It went from being this powerful head of this Delian League, something of an empire, this wealthy city, and now it's a subjugated state, it's tired from war. And so you can imagine there's a lot of political infighting, and Socrates ends up being one of the casualties. He is actually put on trial by his fellow Athenians.
This is a depiction of the trial of Socrates, and it shows Socrates defending himself from the accusations brought against him. Refusing to recognize the gods acknowledged by the state, importing strange divinities of his own, corrupting the young. And his defense, which both Xenophon and Plato write about, called The Apology, he's bewildered, he says, where is all of this coming from?
Now, it is true, he did not invoke the gods when he's trying to explain the universe. And, yes, he was trying to teach the young to think. But by no means, if you look at what he was doing, or at least our modern accounts coming through Plato and Xenophon, does it seem like he was trying to undermine the state in some way. But, needless to say, it comes to a vote, and maybe he's a victim of his own fears of a pure democratic process, but, amongst the Athenians voting, say that he is guilty, and say that he is not guilty.
He is given a chance to think about what his penalty should be.
The Big Three of Greek Philosophy: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. | English Blog
And the charges, at least in the Athenian's minds, were quite serious. But Socrates famously says, "An unexamined life is not worth living. And this is a painting done much, much later of what that death of Socrates might have looked like. But you see here Socrates about to, or maybe he just drank the hemlock, which is the poison which will kill him. So, even though he had to die for these pretty spurious allegations, his legacy lives on, and it lives on most famously in his student Plato.
Now, Plato is famous for many things. There's this notion of a Platonic ideal form that, whether you're talking about a circle, or a ball, or a dog, or a chair, that there's an ideal form that is independent of what your senses are telling you, or what the chair in front of you might be, that that's an imperfect version of that ideal form.
The word Platonic, in general, you'll hear applied to many different concepts, some of the meanings having changed over time. The other thing that Plato is famous for is the notion of an academy.
Greek philosophy – ancient Greece
The place where he taught his students was a little field outside the walls of Athens, named for the Athenian hero Akademos, and so that area became known as Plato's Academy. And ever since then, places of learning have often been referred to as academies, just like Khan Academy. But Plato was also concerned, like his teacher Socrates, with the nature of how we should be ruled.
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And, remember, we're now after the period of the Peloponnesian War. The city states of Greece, especially Athens, have been dramatically weakened, so a lot of people might be thinking, including Plato, is there a better way to govern ourselves?
Ancient Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Now, Plato's most famous student is Aristotle. And, like his teacher, Aristotle is famous for many things and explored many dimensions of the universe. But he is probably most famous for being the tutor of Alexander the Great when Alexander the Great was young. Plato's most famous work is called the Republic. In this work Socrates discusses the meaning of justice and how cities and governments should be ruled.
He describes his ideal society in the conversations. This work is still studied today and has had an impact on both philosophy and political theory throughout history. Plato believed that no one should be rich or live in luxury. He also believed that each person should do the job that they are best suited for. He thought a philosopher-king should rule society. He founded his own school called the Academy where he taught students, such as Aristotle.
Aristotle Aristotle was a student of Plato, but didn't necessarily agree with all that Plato said. Aristotle liked to focus on more practical areas of philosophy including science.
He founded his own school called the Lyceum. He thought that reason was the highest good and that it was important to have self control. Aristotle was a tutor for Alexander the Great.
Other Greek Philosophers Pythagoras - Pythagoras is most known for the Pythagorean Theorem which is used to find the length of sides of right triangles. He also believed that the world was based on mathematics. Epicurus - Said that the gods had no interest in humans.
That what we should do is enjoy our lives and be happy.