Gummesson total relationship marketing 2008 democratic primary

gummesson total relationship marketing 2008 democratic primary

Summary of Research Relating to Relationship Marketing in HEIs. Three stakeholders studies of a total of fifty two participants including: nine Business marketing strategy in place to survive in the global market. of international students who are the primary stakeholders identified in the aim of this study. for me to collect primary data using their resources. Key words: Relationship Marketing, South African Cement Manufacturing Industry,. Supplier of relationship marketing (Morgan and Hunt ; Barry et al., ; Caceres and Gummesson () further states: “the most innovative and theoretical developed. Key Words: Relationship Marketing, Marketing, Total Quality Management, Total Gummesson ; Aijo ; Grönroos ; Magrath ; Khalil and Harcar How have IT and TQM reshaped the marketing strategy and philosophy ?.

The problem statement, aim and objectives and rationale for the study were also explained. Chapter 5 One also outlined the scope of the study including the overview of the following chapters. Chapter Two will present the literature review on relationship marketing. This chapter reviews the literature by examining the following: With a change in the political order came a change in the Higher Education environment.

Throughout the world, universities of technology have made a m ajor impact on t he development of their countries and regional economies by preparing graduates for the world of work and applying their research skills to identifying the problems and needs of society.

According to Negricea, Avram and E ftimie n. Negricea, Avram and Eftimie n. Longterm relationships are based on an amount of knowledge acquired over time, experience and confidence gained from collaborative relationships with customers.

Organisations that want to exploit the potential offered by applying the principle of relationship marketing calculate and monitor an extremely important indicator, the customer value, throughout the entire period of the relationship with the organisation.

According to the authors above, relationship marketing is essential for building longterm relationships because it is easier to maintain these relationships than to establish 8 new customers and relationships.

The authors suggest that long-term customers, rather than new ones, are more likely to purchase products over a period of time. Eiriz and Wilson According to Gummesson Therefore, Eiriz and Wilson and Gummesson suggest that relationship marketing is important in cultivating relationships with customers because it increases the profitability of the organisation. Increased profits lead to a larger market share. Sarshar, Sertyesilisik and Parry RM focuses on obtaining and maintaining profitable relationships with customers, business to customer, and with other companies, business to business.

The idea is that long-term customers cost less to service and, therefore, are more profitable. RM can be categorised into three main sections: Zineldin and P hilipson Repeat business is the lifeblood of any business. This definition suggests that long-term customers are the mainstay of any organisation that guarantee the longevity and survival of the organisation.

Through the managed relationship portfolio, the relationship marketing strategy can be a source of competitive advantage for the company. Hau and Ngo At the recent Homecoming event, held on Saturday, 6 Septemberpledges in excess of R90 were received. This suggests that alumni want to assist their alma mater in whatever they can and they only need a simple request. Alumni tend to identify with what students experience in their tertiary lives as they were once in similar positions.

Relationship marketing is about retaining customers by establishing, maintaining and enhancing relationships with customers and other parties. Developing further, relationship marketing was defined as a strategy by which the interactions, relationships and networks become fundamental. With the rapid growth of the internet and mobile platforms, relationship marketing is continuing to evolve and grow as technology opens more collaborative and social communication channels.

The overall goals are to nurture and retain existing customers, reduce the costs of marketing and build mutually satisfying relationships Sohail In transaction marketing, the fact that a customer has bought once does not forecast the probability for repurchase, not even if a series of purchases has been made. In RM, loyalty - especially customer loyalty - is 10 emphasised. Recurrent customers are clients; those who have come back and a l ong-term relationship is in the making.

In the next stages, the client becomes a supporter and, finally, an advocate for the supplier. Baron, Conway and Warnaby Transactional marketing attracts customers using offensive strategies, e. According to Harwood and Garry Berndt and Tait Retention of existing customers is based on customer satisfaction. According to research conducted by Ndubisi Loyalty is a dee ply held commitment to rebuy or repatronise a pr eferred product or service in the future in spite of situational influences.

Further, satisfaction is inextricably linked to customer loyalty and relationship commitment. Highly satisfied customers spread positive word of mouth and, in fact, become a walking, talking advertisement for an organisation whose service has pleased them Ndubisi, Malhotra and Wah The benefit that relationship marketing offers has helped it gain popularity in the recent past as an approach to develop bonding with individual constituents of the value chain of a firm operating in an industry.

Players, to gain a competitive edge in an increasingly cutthroat market condition, are using it as a c ompetitive marketing weapon. Marketers are increasingly using relationships as a tool of value creation, and, in the process, they are involving customers for their real time views on product development, designing, pricing distribution, etc. Origin of Relationship Marketing, The key characteristics of relationship marketing are that every customer is considered an individual person or unit, activities of the firm are predominantly directed towards existing customers and it is based on interactions and dialogues as well as that the firm is trying to achieve profitability through the decrease of customer turnover and the strengthening of customer relationships Ndubisi and Wah Relationship marketing theory suggests that relationships add quality to marketing transactions.

They begin to share and exchange values.

gummesson total relationship marketing 2008 democratic primary

Moreover, the people whose values are the most in tune with those around them, tend to form the strongest, most supportive bonds with other people Egan At a t actical level, relationship marketing is used only as a sales promotion tool. Moreover, at a philosophical level, relationship marketing shifts the focus of marketing strategy away from products and their life cycle towards customer relationship life cycles Osarenkhoe According to Johnsonrelationship marketing is targeted at building stronger and long-lasting relationships with clients and other companies.

The business is done with a strategic orientation, where the relationship is improved with existing customers rather than finding new customers. It is meant to cater for the needs of individual customers. Its major part involves studying the need of the customer and how it changes in different circumstances.

Relationship marketing applies techniques like marketing, sales, customer care and communication. The relationship is not only enhanced but its life period is increased by these strategies. Moreover, as the customers realise the value of the relationship, they are drawn closer.

gummesson total relationship marketing 2008 democratic primary

Having this knowledge is essential as it assists organisations in persuading their customers to purchase their products. Company systems must be i n place to collect customer information from all touch points, disseminate the information within the company to all relevant parties and generate co-ordinated communications with the customer. At the DUT, this is achieved through the DevMan system which contains the biographical details of all alumni on t he database.

This system also tracks attendance of alumni at events, thereby also indicating the level of loyalty of alumni towards DUT.

According to Hunt, Arnett and Madhavaram Specifically, RM-based strategy emphasises that to achieve competitive advantage and, thereby, superior financial performance, firms should identify, develop, and nurture an efficiencyenhancing portfolio of relationships.

Relationship marketing research identifies a number of successfully designed and implemented RM-based strategies. According to Chattananon and Trimetsoontorn Customer Satisfaction - According to Lucas Satisfaction is a bi g factor for many customers in remaining loyal.

gummesson total relationship marketing 2008 democratic primary

Similarly, the DUT alumni would want to return to continue with their post-graduate qualifications if they were satisfied with the calibre of academic programmes offered at the DUT. Customer delight or exceeding customer expectation is a powerful way to gain customer loyalty and solidify long-term relationships Johnston and Marshall Customer delight can be defined as the effect of delivering a product or service that surpasses customer expectations in a favourable experience.

The Convocation and Alumni Relations department offers bursaries to financially needy and academically deserving 15 students and, in so doing, is able to offer a few students an opportunity to continue with the tertiary education and progress in their chosen career paths.

The Convocation and Alumni Relations department hosts social as well as leadership events such as homecoming in order for alumni to stay in touch with their alma mater and, in so doing, ensures that the DUT is the number one choice for an institution of higher learning.

Customer retention, with regard to customer satisfaction, is becoming increasingly significant, because customers today have the opportunity to choose from such a large range of products and services, and because the competition within various markets is becoming even fiercer. Following the adage that one has to invest six times as much in a new customer as in an already existing one, companies are discovering new potential in the building up and maintenance of a stable customer base.

This is the source of commercial success and long-term growth Raab, Ajami and G argeya It is important for the DUT to ensure that its academic offerings are on par with other leading higher education institutions to ensure that students remain at the DUT. Alumni are positive word of mouth ambassadors and their experiences at the DUT will go a long way to them advocating for the DUT.

Loyalty is seen as a deeply-held commitment to re-buy or re-patronise a preferred product or service in the future Baron, Conway and Warnaby Alumni attendance at events has significantly 16 increased in the last few years.

Attendance at homecoming events as well as the Annual General Meeting has surpassed expectations with a large percentage of alumni enquiring as to when future events will be held.

With regards to the defining constructs, a num ber of authors have sought to characterise relationship marketing in terms of trust, commitment, co-operation, communication, shared values, conflict, power, non-opportunistic behaviour and interdependence Chattananon and Trimetsoontorn, Trust is an expectation that the word of another can be relied upon and implies honesty in negotiations.

The challenge for relationship marketing is to inculcate trust in the partner.

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Trust is established where the perceived performance matches promised performance. Trust can be influenced by satisfaction and experience, as trust is unlikely to be built where no experience exists Baron, Conway and Warnaby Constant communication builds trust. The Convocation and Alumni Relations department regularly communicates with alumni informing them of developments at their alma mater. A recent communique was sent to alumni informing them of academic programmes offered by the Business Studies Unit BSU.

Commitment is the belief that the importance of a relationship with another is so significant that it warrants maximum effort to maintain it.

Commitment implies that both parties will be loyal, reliable and show stability in their relationship with one another. When commitment and t rust are present, they produce outcomes that promote efficiency, productivity and effectiveness. Hence, commitment and trust lead directly to co-operative behaviours that are conducive to relationship marketing success Berndt and Tait In a study conducted by Kelleher She further states that alumni relations officers try to build trust by keeping in touch with alumni electronically.

With regards to the aspect of values, she adds that, in alumni relations, value might relate to the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards that are derived from alumni participation in a multitude of alumni programmes. Co-operation - commitment and trust are key because they encourage marketers to work at preserving relationship investments by cooperating with exchange partners. Business almost always involves large cooperative and mutually trusting people, customers and investors Morgan and Hunt Similarly, alumni and the DUT must have a mutually symbiotic relationship which is achieved through working together to enhance the reputation of the institution.

Through this relationship, alumni have contributed towards the Give a Tiger bursary fund which is aimed at assisting financially needy and academically deserving students. Communication is a pr ocess of formal and i nformal sharing of meaningful and t imely information between sellers and buyers. Communication, which enables information exchange, is an i mportant element of relationship marketing.

gummesson total relationship marketing 2008 democratic primary

Communication in relationship marketing refers to keeping in touch with customers, providing timely and trustworthy information, and communicating proactively if a del ivery problem occurs. Empirical evidence asserts that communication is a determinant of relationship marketing. The more breadth and depth that exists in communication patterns, the stronger the partnership is likely to be Sohail To this effect, a video was produced which was communicated to alumni both internally and externally.

Shared Values - According to Egan The extent to which the partners have beliefs in common about behaviours, goals and policies that are important, appropriate and right for a particular situation is likely to affect commitment to a relationship.

Conflict is the overall disagreement in the working relationship. During the violent student protests at the DUT, the Convocation and Alumni Relations office kept alumni informed of developments via the DevMan system. All communique regarding the protests sent out by Executive Management was channeled through to alumni so as to be kept abreast of developments at their alma mater. Power and mutual dependence are closely-related concepts.

A well-known definition is that the relative power of an or ganisation over another is the result of the net dependence of the one on the other. Relative power is defined as the dependence of one party compared to the dependence of the other party. Non-opportunistic behaviour refers to not taking advantage of the relationship partners Egan Alumni relations is based on a symbiotic relationship where both the institution and its alumni rely on each other for a mutually beneficial relationship.

The more the interdependency, the stronger is the relational behaviour Rao and Perry In terms of the instruments, relationship marketing has been interpreted as direct marketing and database marketing, quality management, services marketing and customer partnering Chattananon and Trimetsoontorn Direct Marketing DM focuses on using the database to communicate and sometimes distribute directly to customers so as to attract a direct response Egan Event notices as well as updating alumni on crises at the university are done by emailing alumni through the DevMan system.

The DevMan system contains comprehensive information on alumni which includes their email and cellphone numbers for communication purposes. The successful achievement of these standards plays an important role in acceptance of the output in the market Giri CONVEX has agreed to undergo a self-evaluation process to evaluate its performance and functionality.

Services marketing focuses on delivering processes, experiences and intangibles to customers rather than physical goods and transactions. It involves integrating a f ocus on the customer throughout the firm and across all functions.

Rather than the traditional goods marketing focus on t ransactions and exchange, services marketing strategy is centred on the customer, usage and relationships Zeithaml, Bitner and Gremler Similarly, alumni are at the core of alumni relations.

Relationship MaRketing Exploring relational strategies in marketing | Devi Dayanti -

Creating programmes that are of benefit to alumni and assisting with queries helps maintain links with alumni and their alma mater.

The Convocation and Alumni Relations office is seen as the vehicle to channel their concerns as Convocation has three representatives on Council. Catch-all phrases are defined as something that holds or includes odds and ends or a wide variety of things. This is based on the notion that alumni relations create lifelong bonds with alumni.

In this market, a l arge number of the DUT employees are alumni which translates into the loyalty of alumni for choosing their alma mater as their place of employment.

As a logical result of the appearance of the concept of relationship marketing, the concept of customer relationship management CRM has been brought to attention. CRM has directed attention towards various vital aspects, including the necessity of direct relationship between customers and marketers, the importance of keeping current customers, as well as the inevitability of building long-term relationships with customers.

Great advances in technology helped in enhancing communication with customers, providing an environment rich with information so as to contribute to improving efficient strategies to deal with customers. CRM has been defined as a comprehensive strategy that includes the process of acquiring certain customers, keeping them and c ooperating with them to create a distinguished value for both the company and the customer.

This strategy requires integrating the functions of marketing, sales and customer service so as to achieve the highest competence and efficiency in delivering value to the customer Soliman The concept of CRM, therefore, deals with building and solidifying relationships with customers with a view to ensuring that they become long-term, repeat customers. It further suggests that enhanced communication plays a significant role in forging such relationships.

CRM greatly enhances the process of securing, building, and maintaining long-term relationships with profitable customers Johnston and Marshall CRM refers to the practice of collecting, storing and analysing customer-level information and incorporating the results into the decision-making process of a firm.

It also involves automating, enhancing and integrating core business processes such as production, operations, sales, marketing and finance. The power of CRM lies in its adaptability to further the performance of any individual activity of the business, or even the entire business as a w hole. An important concept in CRM is customer value. Customer value is essentially the financial value of the customer relationship to the firm. Customer value is widely used by firms to evaluate their marketing efforts Kumar and Petersen According to Aksoy, Keiningham and Bejou The basic overarching objective of such customer centric approaches is to better understand customers by collecting relevant information and then making the most of this information in interactions with the customer with the expectation that this ultimately leads to improved effectiveness in customer management and results in increased firm profitability.

Effective CRM implementations purport to gain a degree view of the customer. Given that customers interact via a v ariety of channels, this entails integration of customer information collected from various touch points e. Only through successful integration of customer data can this information be utilised effectively. Information regarding the needs of alumni and what influences their decisions are obtained through the administration of surveys which are conducted by Magnet Communications.

The information obtained is used to improve on the 24 Abdi, H. Computational Stats, 2 4: This work seeks to expose how this kind of exclusive policy is sold to a public through intricate hortatory tools.

At the conclusion, I propose that it is necessary to step away from accountability jargon to reconsider the purpose of education and to recuperate what it means to be responsible for rather than accountable to one another. Keywords politics; policy; accountability; media; educational policy; ethics Full Text: The sources and nature of statistical information in special fields of statistics: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 2 Ontario addresses math score decline amid worry from parents, educators.

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