Cuba profile - Timeline - BBC News
The Spanish government is changing its relationship with Venezuela and Cuba. The new Socialist Party (PSOE) Prime Minister, Pedro. Cuban-Venezuelan relationship was buttressed by Hugo Chávez sin uniforme: Una historia personal (Mondadon, Spain: Debate, ). Venezuelan military officers seeking to overthrow President Nicolás coups and plots in countries like Cuba, Nicaragua, Brazil and Chile, Relations between the United States and Venezuela have been strained for years.
Descendants of Bolivar and relatives of marechal Antonio Jose de Sucre, they fought in the War of the ByCuba and Venezuela signed an extradition treaty. The weapons imported from United Statescame from the arsenals of the Venezuelan Army.
In turn, Venezuelan broadcasters had the initiative to retransmit the war parts of the Radio Rebelde through Radio Rumbos and Radio Continent, which allowed to know the advances of the Castro guerillas and the setbacks of the dictator Batista.
With the triumph of the Cuban Revolutionon January 1,a new period was opened in Havana-Caracas bilateral relations. On January 5,the Venezuelan Government recognizes the newly established Cuban government in Havana.
Cuba profile - Timeline
On January 23, Castro visited Venezuela. It was his first trip abroad after the triumphal entry in Havana on January 6, During five-day in Caracas Castro was celebrated as a continental hero by Venezuelan people. The trip had one main reason: At the Venezuela Central University, he met a great poet, the Chilean Pablo Nerudawho spoke in a massive act of students and read his Canto a Bolivar. Castro had inspired the guerrillas who threatened Betancourt's government and elections scheduled for Along with 15 other Cuban troops was sent by Castro to strengthen guerrillas fighting alongside Venezuelan militant Douglas Bravothey attempted to attack the government of Raul Leoni which ended in a major strategic loss and a large cost of human life.
Only one year later, a dozen of Cuban and Venezuelan guerrillas trained by Cuba landed in May near the Machurucuto beaches and were intercepted by the Venezuelan Army.
Cuba was denounced by Venezuela to the OAS. Cuba did not recognize the action even when the investigation of the AK47s in possession of the guerrillas were identified as weapons sold by Czechoslovakia to Cuba.
The Government of Venezuela broke all relations with Cuba after this incident and then take them back in They developed a relationship of mutual trust and rapport. In early army delegates and the guerrilla leadership convened in extra-official sessions, with the silent approval of the civilian presidents.
Norway and Cuba played favorable roles as facilitators. The army staff and the second-in-commands of the guerrilla worked out a timetable of disarmament.VENEZUELA: CUBAN LEADER FIDEL CASTRO VISIT
Between March and Decemberwhen the final peace agreements were signed, the army ceased to attack the guerrilla encampments and disarmed the paramilitary forces. The peace negotiations were successfully ended after the Havana sessions. During a previous peace processwhen M and other guerrilla groups signed a peace agreement and were incorporated into Colombian society, Cuba also acted as a peace facilitator, at the request of both the Colombian government and the guerrilla movements.
Cuba–Venezuela relations - Wikipedia
In the FARC and the government exchanged prisoners But the peace negotiations stagnated. InPresident Pastrana suspended the dialogues and the war continued. When Uribe won the presidential elections that year, the war intensified and both the FARC and the ELN lost territorial control and saw their number of combatants reduce.
Uribe initiated a programme of mass demobilization of the paramilitary forces and established a legal opportunity for individuals to leave the guerrilla on easy terms. The majority was demobilized between and When in President Santos was inaugurated, the FARC requested a new round of negotiations and the new president acceded.
Through the good offices of Norway and Cuba, bilateral negotiations started in Havana in In its membership was suspended by a majority vote, under strong American pressure. There is no second country in the world that was the subject of American sanctions during so many decades. The embargo also affected the large Cuban-American diaspora living in the United States via rigorous travel restrictions and the limited possibility to send dollar remittances to their family members.
It participated and participates in nearly all organizations of the UN- system. This even during its most extreme period of austerity, it never reduced its system of international relations.
But especially it nurtured its relations with Latin America and with the Caribbean states. Its Soft Power prestige and its reputation as an important international and regional assistance made the persistent economic embargo a kind of Old Cold War relic.
Year after year the Assembly of the United Nations voted against the continuance of the embargo, with a growing majority of countries condemning the U. Inmember countries backed the resolution. Cuba and Venezuela were the leading countries of the ALBA group of countries created in and expanded afterwards. But this time Cuba rebuffed the invitation, a stance that officially was maintained until It also helped that three former national labor union leaders had become presidents of their countries: Furthermore, former guerrilla leaders were elected president or vice-president in Bolivia, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Uruguay.
Notwithstanding mutual hostility, the United States and Cuba had a history of decades-long negotiation about normalization. In a minimum degree of formal diplomatic interaction contact was established by the United States Interests Section of the Embassy of Switzerland in Havana, and its counterpart Interests Section of the Republic of Cuba in Washington.
Visiting government officials of both countries continued to discuss and negotiate. One of the most delicate problems was the relation with the Catholic episcopate, icy for 50 years. But the relation slowly improved.
A nasty incident triggered the beginning of a rapport In such a group pursued the women into the Church.
Peoples' Treaty of Bolivia, Cuba and Venezuela | Transnational Institute
This budding relationship also permitted a much better understanding between Cuba and the Vatican. Inwhen the Argentinean Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio — in whose ideas one can trace some affinity with Liberation Theology — became Pope Francis, the Vatican functioned as a broker between Cuba and the United States It paved the way to restoring diplomatic ties and the normalization of relations between the two countries.
In the first months of his first term he relieved restrictions on travel and remittances. A large part of the rapprochement between the two countries was negotiated in secret.
Still, the announcement in Havana and Washington that both governments would restore full diplomatic ties came as a surprise to most observers of the US-Cuban relationship. The Cold War for Cuba ended in December However, inincoming US president Trump re-frosted much of the warmer relations that his antecessor initiated.
Bibliographie Abendroth, Mark, Rebel Literacy: Guatemala, —Guatemala, Piedra Santa, Raymond, The Soviet Union and Cuba. Interests and Influences, New York, Praeger, International Relations, Internationalism, and Transnationalism.
Gainesville, University Press of Florida,p. James, Daniel, Che Guevara. Michael Erisman, Cuban Medical Internationalism: Revolutionary Soldiers during Counter — Revolutionary Times. New York, Palgrave Macmillan, Pavlov, Yuri, Soviet — Cuban Alliance: Transnational Perspectives, London, Routledge, Spadoni, Paolo, Failed Sanctions: In this regard, the governments shall continue to support the space devoted to integrationist communication created by Telesur, by increasing its distribution in our countries, as well as its contents production capacities.
The governments of Venezuela and Cuba acknowledge the special needs of Bolivia as a country whose natural resources were exploited and plundered during the centuries of colonial and neo-colonial rule. The Parties shall exchange scientific and technical know-how with the aim of aiding the economic and social development of the three countries. Taking into account all of the above, the Government of the Republic of Cuba, the Government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and the Government of the Republic of Bolivia, have agreed upon the following actions: To create a non-profit Cuban-Bolivian entity which will provide free high quality ophthalmologic surgeries to all Bolivian citizens lacking the financial resources needed to cover the high cost of this service, thus preventing tens of thousands of poor Bolivians from loosing their sight or serious and often crippling limitations to their sight each year.
Cuba shall supply the most advanced technology equipment and the ophthalmologic specialists required in the initial stage who, with the support of young Bolivian doctors trained in the Latin American School of Medical Sciences ELAMworking as doctors in residence, or other doctors and residents from Bolivia or other countries, shall offer attentive care to the Bolivian patients.
Cuba shall pay the wages of the Cuban ophthalmologic specialists working in the framework of this action program. Bolivia shall provide the facilities necessary to render this service, be they buildings already used to provide healthcare or others adapted to this purpose. Cuba shall increase the number of ophthalmologic centres donated from three, the number initially offered in the Bilateral Agreement signed on December 30 of last year, to six. Together they shall have the capacity to operate on at least thousand people each year.
This capacity may be increased should the need arise. Cuba hereby reaffirms its offer to provide Bolivia with 5 thousand scholarships to train doctors and specialists in General Integral Medicine or other areas of Medical Science: Over the subsequent years the established quota shall be replenished with new students.
Included in these new scholarships are some of the young Bolivians who are already studying Medicine in Schools of medical Science al over Cuba. Cuba shall prolong the stay of the medical specialists who travelled to Bolivia as a result of the serious natural disaster which occurred in January of this year, affecting all the regions of the country, for as long as this sister nation deems necessary.
Furthermore, it will donate 20 field hospitals equipped with surgical facilities, intensive care units, emergency services for patients suffering of cardiovascular accidents, laboratories and other medical resources, to be sent to the areas hardest hit by this disaster.
Cuba shall continue to provide Bolivia with the experience, didactic material and technical resources necessary to implement the literacy program in four languages: With regards to the education sector, the exchange and collaboration plan shall be extended to offer help in the methods, programs and techniques of the educational process of interest to the Bolivian party.
Cuba will share its energy-saving experiences with Bolivia and shall cooperate with this country on an energy-saving program that could yield significant convertible currency resources. During the investment recovery period, any state investment, investments made by Bolivian mixed companies or even those made with Bolivian private capital in Cuba will be tax-exempt.
Cuba shall grant Bolivian airlines the same facilities provided to their Cuban counterparts, with regard to passenger transportation, freight to and from Cuba and the use of airport services or any other facilities, as well as the internal transportation of passengers and freight within Cuba. The exportation of goods and services from Cuba may be paid for with Bolivian products, in the national currency of Bolivia or in other currencies mutually agreed upon.
Venezuela shall encourage extensive collaboration in the energy and mining sector, including: Compensation mechanisms shall be established with Bolivian products so as to completely cancel all debts created by these services.