lated in as Friday], a reworking of Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (). Defoe based his The chapter entitled "I Go on Board in an Evil Hour" desig- with the Defoe tradition, he enters at first into a master/slave relationship with. Robinson Crusoe cries out for study in its colonial contexts. Indeed, British .. ties ": "I had room to suppose, the Ship had a great deal of Wealth on board; and if I .. maintains the master-slave paradigm that underlies their relationship. Friday. Both Robinson Crusoe and Foe explore the voluminous power of voice in language as . European colonialism by exploring the master and slave relationship.
The first part of the narrative is addressed to a writer named Foe, where Susan tells her tale of losing her daughter in Brazil and arriving as a castaway to a deserted island. The castaways are later rescued from the desert island and taken back to England. All but Cruso survive the journey. In the second part of the novel, Susan adopts the name Mrs.
Cruso, and writes a series of letters to Foe, in hopes of having him write of her adventures on the island as she has recorded them. When Susan eventually finds Foe, she is unhappy about the way he is going about narrating the content of her story. She attempts to speculate his origins and the events that lead up to the loss of his tongue. The final part of the narrative shifts tone indicating the voice of an anonymous narrator. The final section appears unintelligible compared to the rest of the novel and it is here that Coetzee illustrates in nontraditional ways dimensions of storytelling.
Coetzee adds a woman, Susan Barton, as a narrator to his novel to give place to characters that are not traditionally given agency. Coetzee depicts Friday as a tongueless Negro with springy hair, head of fuzzy wool, and hard skin Susan begins to understand that because of his silence, anyone might be able to unethically appropriate his story: Friday has no command of words and therefore no defence against being re-shaped day by day in conformity with the desires of others.
I say he is a cannibal and he becomes a cannibal; I say he is a laundryman and he becomes a laundryman. What is the truth of Friday? But that is not so. No matter what he is to himself is he anything to himself — how can he tell us? What he is to the world is what I make of him. The struggle within the narrative is not to give Friday a voice but rather to discover other avenues in which his story might be told. This then brings forth the ethical question of translation, the idea of who is telling whose story.
When thinking of the concept of translation, it is often associated with translating from one language to another. Throughout the narrative of Foe, Sarah Barton shapes the character of Friday and attempts to tell his story.
When Robinson Crusoe tells his story incorporating Friday, he presents himself as a hero. The last section of Foe is an image of narrative return to a story. The way that a story is traditionally understood is through the structure of Robinson Crusoe.
The narrative becomes non-linear through the image of water as a metaphorical representation of storytelling. Water is something that is so fluid, it cannot be held as its own and its taste is something that is almost impossible to describe. The image of water, thus, emphasizes what a story is. Water is itself in the same way that we are our own voice.
Crusoe also teaches Friday to speak English, encourages him to eat goat and convert him into Christianity. By throughout the reading of this novel we can say that the first and most important point about Friday's relationship with Crusoe is that Friday is Crusoe's slave and assistant or worker of him. Why does Crusoe not see Friday as his equal, even after Friday converts to Christianity?
That is the main question of this theme master slave relationship between Crusoe and Friday. Friday is a very honest and innocent person by nature not only for readers of this novel but also for Crusoe as we found in this novel that Crusoe describes Friday like this, [ "I had a singular satisfaction in the fellow himself: Robinson Crusoe is man of Man Trader.
The relationship between Crusoe and Friday is rather mixed one.
We are confused in throughout the novel that what the relationship between them is?? Because at first point of view we can say that they have relationship of father and son because Crusoe teaches Friday that how one can well behave in manner or teaches him that how to eat and he teaches him Christianity also so from this aspect we can say that they have relationship of father and son. But from the second aspect we realise that this is not the relationship of father and son but this is the relationship of master and slave from the second aspect.
This colonial aspect of master slave relationship is shown in throughout the novel example like, [ "I made him know that his name was to be Friday I likewise taught him to say Master, and then let him know, that was to be my name". This is shown time of Crusoe that in that time servant is named by his master and this thing reflect by Daniel Defoe in this novel without knowing that what is his real name. In that period of time when slaves were named by their colonial masters and this is portrayed well when Crusoe gives Friday his name, without regard for what his real name might be.
The first few thoughts that come to Crusoe's mind after Friday's evident submission are not negative, as his first reaction, and thoughts, were: We can say that this behaviour is changed because of may be for due to mere relief of having another human being or companion with him, relieving him of the many years in solitude: Because when Friday touches that guns Crusoe immediately stops him from doing that this shows that he feels fear from Friday. At first, Crusoe allows Friday to believe that the gun is "some wonderful Fund of Death and Destruction" which results in Friday acting very cautiously around the gun: The difference is only this that the master will not praise the slave for his work.
Crusoe have holds some of the quite a good opinion for Friday.
Ethical Translation and Intertextuality in Foe and Robinson Crusoe | Magnificat
Soon after discovering Friday and he describes him using several positive comments like: The black population contributed to most of the slaves owned by many Europeans. Blacks were thought of as lower than animals and were treated adversely by their masters, as if they were mere dirt. Crusoe is trying to convince the reader that Friday is not a part of that population, and is therefore trying to raise Friday's level in the hierarchy of people.
It focuses, as well, on the variety and the crucial role of storytelling starting from the prototype-Robinson Crusoe- ending up with its pastiche Foe.
From his first contact with Friday in the island and affected by the racial prejudice of his time, Crusoe adopts a self-centered behavior with his only fellow in the island. Defoe presents Crusoe as the one who brings humanity to a savage animal. Crusoe takes the responsibility of teaching Friday language and manners in order to be useful. In this respect, Friday is presented as a tool or an object which Defoe adds in the island to furnish the life of Crusoe who he himself articulates this very idea saying: Defoe goes farther with this idea through the deification of Crusoe, which pressed Friday in the periphery, and put Crusoe in the center and he goes: Defoe does not concentrate on the interaction between the two characters.
He deepened the gap between them, attributing to Crusoe the property of the land with its inhabitants, and providing Friday with nothing but a compulsory submission and marginalization. Even when Friday wants to show that he has some capacities which are worth mentioning, he is treated with neglect, which Crusoe uses as a defense mechanism to insure his superiority and he says: While Defoe provides the readers of the source text with a relationship based on a binary opposition of self vs.
M Coetzee provided a new vision of the hypo text - Robinson Crusoe- through his hypertext —Foe. His first attempt is to deconstruct the binary opposition which is present in the prototype via putting Friday in the periphery. He shed lights on 5 Mekni Boutheyna the relationship between Friday and the other characters and though he, through a rebellious and purposeful reaction, kills the protagonist of the prototype from the beginning of the novel, he does not overcome the master vs.
The superiority of Cruso, even partial and not highlighted, still pervades all the atmosphere of the island. Coetzee keeps this dichotomy to put his novel in the heart of the post colonial discourse, which necessitates the presence of such a relation as the nourishing ground of the oppressed resistance later on.
Cruso is still the ruler of the island and the people in it. He owns them as his subjects and servants, in this respect Susan Barton argues: Through presenting Friday as a slave who is not able to speak, he even traces something more dangerous in terms of communication between the latter and Cruso. Cruso does not manipulate Friday only in terms of physicality, but it becomes a linguistic manipulation.
Crusoe himself puts emphasis on this idea saying: To avoid all the suspects Cruso claims that: In her first encounter with Friday in the island, she shows little interest in Friday. She attributes to him all the signs of barbarity and inhumanity.
She could not hide her feelings of fear and uneasiness towards this creature, which for her, stands as a threat or even worse, an alarming danger and she says: Racial prejudices again rule the situation, the same thing with Robinson Crusoe in the prototype. Friday is, again, in the periphery, treated as a threatening object.
His humanity vanishes once he meets a white person. Once Susan is determined to put her story on paper thanks to the help of Mr. Foe, the author of their story, she thinks about being a prosperous and famous woman. Conversely she is struck by the muteness of Friday, and she absorbs that he stands as an obstacle in her way when she says: Coetzee works within the post colonial theory, which shows the reaction of the marginalized other.
The reader can see that Friday, as the rest of characters, has a reaction. He does not show any interest in Susan, even as a sexual partner. Susan is left alone in his company, not able to discuss with him, or to share a single word. He is the subaltern, as Spivak puts it, who adopts silence as a weapon against those who claim their superiority. Through adopting a sterile mode of communication, Friday puts Susan in the periphery of discourse.
He does not allow her to discover the truth of his story, keeping it in an intact and unreachable zone. The same idea of self vs. Susan foregrounds this idea when she says: As a reaction, Mr. Foe tends to erase the story of Friday. He resorts to invent another story of adventures and fantasy. It holds its roots at the heart of the discourse of superiority. He does not attempt to reshape Friday or to distort his history, but worse, he wants to obliterate it completely from the existence.
Foe puts this idea and says: By itself it is no better than a waterlogged boat drifting day after day in an empty ocean till one day, humbly and without commotion, it sinks. The island lacks light and shade. It is too much the same throughout. It is like a loaf of bread. It will keep us alive, certainly, if we are starved of reading; but who will prefer it when there are tastier confections and pastries to be had? In the process of exposing Friday, the center of the novel, to different interactions of the self among others, Coetzee aims to highlight the antagonist behavior of those who claim their superiority.
Once outside the island, Friday is treated as a slaveor even worse as a savage cannibal, who puts his foot on the civilized world. He is rejected by the community of the city.
Pritiba Gohil's Assignments: Master – Slave Relationship In Robinson Crusoe
They adopt a racial discourse, one which guarantees for them their preferable place in the center, and discards the other, in this respect Friday, in the margins. Being the subaltern, the one to be mocked at and treated with disdain and deep sarcasm, Friday is the one who carries all those blind prejudices. He is supposed to be reminded of his atrocity everywhere he goes: When he tries to coexist with people, he finds himself rejected by them.
In the restaurant they rejected him because he is not wearing his shoes, an indication of civilization according to them: His papers define him, as if his very existence, flesh and soul, is in vain.
Though, the relationship of the various characters with Friday is manifested through the dichotomy of self vs. The multiple characters, at a specific moment, enter in a contact zone with Friday, where they exercise an interaction based on the relationship of self and other.
The two major characters that highlight this communication with Friday are Crusoe, both in the hypo text and the hypertext, and Susan Barton in Foe. It comes in several layers. To some extent they are friends. He saved him from the brutality of the cannibals in the island.