More Quotation Mark Rules // Purdue Writing Lab
In American English, periods and commas go inside quotation marks, but Your browser does not currently recognize any of the video formats available. Oct 28, If you are writing in American English, other punctuation should go inside the quotation marks, even if it is not part of the quotation itself. The placement of quotation marks in relation to Other uses are for enclosing the title of a song examples one and two), no comma is placed before the.
Previously, they were pretty exclusively used to mark dialogue. But with the introduction of sarcasm and facetiousness into our lives, they have found a whole new purpose. Quotation marks designate dialogue. This is probably the first thing you learned about quotation marks in grade school. When little Johnny and Sally had their first conversation about watching Spot run, their conversation was marked by quotation marks. Nothing fancy about that.
When someone starts talking, open the quotation marks. When they stop, close the quotation marks. Make sure your ending punctuation is inside the quotes. Open quotation marks when someone starts talking, and close them when they stop. Tweet this Tweet 2.
When Do You Use “Quotation Marks”?
Quotation marks designate titles of poems, articles or shorter works. Quotation marks reveal the use of sarcasm, irony, euphemisms, or slang. I realize we have some overseas readers, so for all those unfamiliar, air quotes are when you take the first two fingers of your hand and curl them like bunny ears. Note that, as a general rule, commas interrupt the flow of a sentence and should therefore not be used where they do not contribute to clarity.
A sentence requiring a large number of commas for clarity is probably a poorly constructed one in need of rephrasing. Yet the comma is also the mark most often incorrectly omitted. A restrictive word, phrase or clause adds to the words it modifies a "restrictive" or defining element that is essential to the meaning of the whole; it should therefore not be separated by a comma or other mark of punctuation.
A non-restrictive element provides incidental or supplementary information which does not affect the essential meaning; it should be set off by a comma or commas. Compare The senators who had objected most strongly to the shift in policy were quick to acknowledge the error in their thinking. An introductory phrase or clause, especially if it is a long one, is often followed by a comma even if it is restrictive: Of all election issues, the place of minorities in society is the most sensitive.
When choosing between two approaches, it is important to consult experts in the field. Each of the above sentences could have been correctly punctuated with or without the comma.
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But an introductory subordinate clause is normally followed by a comma: Now that the Canadian film industry has come of age, it is time to focus on securing a larger share of the market. After introductory adverbs and short phrases indicating time, frequency, location or cause, the comma is omitted unless needed to avoid ambiguity or add emphasis: By next week the new budget will have been thoroughly analysed.
Introductory adverbs or phrases used to mark transition or to express a personal comment are usually set off by commas: Nevertheless, the program will go ahead as scheduled.
In short, no hiring is currently taking place. The introductory phrase may also consist of an adjective or participle separated from its noun by the definite or indefinite article: Unprepared, the team was no match for its opponents. Clearly upset by the heckling, the speaker stopped for a moment to regain his composure.
Conversely, it is sometimes possible to omit the commas that ordinarily set off non-restrictive elements, without obscuring the meaning.
This is especially true of short adverbial expressions: Her words went of course unheeded. All the same he had no compunction about slipping the waiter a few dollars to be on the safe side. In such sentences the addition of commas not strictly needed for clarity gives emphasis to the elements thus enclosed: Her words went, of course, unheeded.Your guide to relationships without "labels"
Such phrases are followed by a comma: Weather permitting, the conference will be held as planned. The chapter completed, I returned to my former duties. Note the following errors in the punctuation of absolute expressions: The investigation had been completed, and the results, having been known for some time, the public was anxiously waiting for heads to roll.
Listening to his speech, it felt as if he would drone on all day. This common problem is avoided if the sentence is recast so that the subject of both clauses is the same: Listening to his speech, I had the impression that he would drone on all day.
We could see that the plan, if not actually rejected out of hand, was far from popular with senior management. If a parenthetic expression is removed from the sentence, the remainder of the sentence should read as a coherent, grammatically correct whole. For example, the sentence The task force wanted to show that it was as good, if not better, than its predecessors. The sentence should be recast as follows: Occasionally it may be expedient to omit the first of the pair of commas around a parenthetic expression: But without realizing it, he had sparked a whole new controversy.
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The parenthetic phrase here is "without realizing it. But without realizing it he had sparked a whole new controversy.
Parenthetic expressions may be set off by parentheses or dashes instead of commas, depending on the degree of emphasis or pause desired, or the length of the expression. Jane evidently had no stake in seeing the dispute continue. Jane, evidently, had no stake in seeing the dispute continue. Jane—evidently—had no stake in seeing the dispute continue. A common error occurs with parenthetic phrases following the conjunction that. The comma that belongs after the conjunction is often placed before it instead: The latter are set off by commas, whereas the former are not: John of the Cross Graham St.
John, of Hoary Cross Her painting Reflections drew a poor response from the public. Her first painting, Contrasts, has been little studied. As in the case of parenthetic expressions, the comma following a non-restrictive appositive cannot be omitted.
Thus the sentence The statement by the Government House Leader, Herb Gray that no changes would be made to salaries paid to Parliamentarians was not unexpected.
When Do You Use "Quotation Marks"? - The Write Practice
A comma is required after "Gray. Our supreme governors, the people. Often, however, the comma is replaced by a colon or dash: Margaret Laurence—perhaps the greatest writer to come out of Manitoba.
If the appositive contains internal commas, it is best introduced by a mark other than the comma. In the following example, a colon would be an improvement over the comma after legacy: The Pearson government left behind a remarkable legacy, a pension plan, a universal medicare plan and a new flag. They may be preceded by a comma, a dash, a semicolon or a period, or, together with the matter they introduce, may be enclosed in parentheses, depending on the emphasis desired: Plans for Senate reform should be honestly and objectively assessed, that is, bearing in mind only the public good.
Note that the expression such as is used to introduce an example, not an appositive, and therefore is not followed by a comma.
It may be preceded by a comma or other punctuation, as required in the sentence.