Mutualism in Coral Reefs | Sciencing
Some examples of apparently mutualistic symbioses include the relationship between What are your favorite symbiotic marine relationships?. An example of obligate mutualism is the relationship between ants and is the relationship between shrimp or smaller fish and large marine. Mututalism is a type of symbiotic relationship in which two organisms live in close proximity and both benefit from the relationship. All symbiotic.
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The coral also protects the zooxanthellae from organisms that might eat it and the intense ultraviolet light that might kill it. Sciencing Video Vault Defensive mutualism occurs when one species receives food and shelter in return for protecting its partner from predators.
As the sea star eats, the scale worm gets leftover pieces of food. Conversely, if a predator tries to attack a sea star, the scale worm uses its sharp pincer-like jaws to bite the predator. This is called obligate mutualism.
The animal-algal mutualism that exists between a coral polyp and a zooxanthellae is an example of obligate mutualism. The coral bleaching phenomenon occurs when zooxanthellae are expelled by the coral, in which case eventually the coral will die. The anemone and clown fish is an example of facultative mutualism.
The clown fish brings food to the anemone while the anemone wards off predators with its stinging polyps. However, the clown fish could live in another type of home and the anemone could capture food from the water without being fed by the anemone.
Parasitism is an extremely successful mode of life; as many as half of all animals have at least one parasitic phase in their life cycles, and it is also frequent in plants and fungi.
Mutualism in Coral Reef Ecosystem
Moreover, almost all free-living animal species are hosts to parasites, often of more than one species. Mimicry Mimicry is a form of symbiosis in which a species adopts distinct characteristics of another species to alter its relationship dynamic with the species being mimicked, to its own advantage.
Batesian mimicry is an exploitative three-party interaction where one species, the mimic, has evolved to mimic another, the model, to deceive a third, the dupe. In terms of signalling theorythe mimic and model have evolved to send a signal; the dupe has evolved to receive it from the model.
This is to the advantage of the mimic but to the detriment of both the model, whose protective signals are effectively weakened, and of the dupe, which is deprived of an edible prey. For example, a wasp is a strongly-defended model, which signals with its conspicuous black and yellow coloration that it is an unprofitable prey to predators such as birds which hunt by sight; many hoverflies are Batesian mimics of wasps, and any bird that avoids these hoverflies is a dupe.
Symbiosis - Wikipedia
Amensalism is an asymmetric interaction where one species is harmed or killed by the other, and one is unaffected by the other. Competition is where a larger or stronger organism deprives a smaller or weaker one from a resource. Antagonism occurs when one organism is damaged or killed by another through a chemical secretion. An example of competition is a sapling growing under the shadow of a mature tree.
The mature tree can rob the sapling of necessary sunlight and, if the mature tree is very large, it can take up rainwater and deplete soil nutrients.