Islamic sexual jurisprudence - Wikipedia
8 Muhammad not only accepted female sex-slaves as gifts (and impregnated them) but also Amr. Uthman had intercourse with her and she detested him. Intercourse with a slave woman is not regarded as zina (adultery) This hadeeth was also narrated by Muslim (), whose version says: We captured some women “those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts, from illegal sexual acts). But some female slaves were forced to become sex workers: not influence through their relationship to the mother of the son.
Translations[ edit ] Bernard Lewis translates ma malakat aymanukum as "those whom you own. Dawood translates the phrase more idiomatically as "those whom you own as slaves. It is the most common of the seven separate terms used in the Quran to refer to slaves.
Brockopp, the use of the phrase ma malakat aymanukum and the cognate term mamluk possessed makes it clear that slaves in the Quranic discourse are regarded as property. When some called for reinstatement of slavery in Pakistan upon its independence from the British colonial rule, Pervez argued that the past tense of this expression means that the Quran had imposed "an unqualified ban" on slavery.
Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page. January Main article: Islamic views on slavery Mainstream view of slavery in the Quran[ edit ] The Quran treats slavery and freedom not as part of the natural order but admits it is indeed a happening as was the nature of humans from days of yore, and states this distinction as an example of God's grace.
The Truth About Islam and Sex Slavery History Is More Complicated Than You Think | HuffPost
We created you from a single pair of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other. Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Some Muslim scholars have taken this mean that his true motive was to bring about a gradual elimination of slavery. An alternative argument is that by lending the moral authority of Islam to slavery, Muhammad assured its legitimacy.
Thus, in lightening the fetter, he riveted it ever more firmly in place. But as the frontiers were gradually stabilized, this supply dwindled to a mere trickle. The prisoners of later wars between Muslims and Christians were commonly ransomed or exchanged. These slaves suffered a high death toll. He however notes that with the passage of time and the extension of Islam, Islam by recognizing and codifying slavery seems to have done more to protect and expand slavery than the reverse.
A task of the masters was religious instruction. Conversion and assimilation into the society of the master didn't automatically lead to emancipation, though there was normally some guarantee of better treatment and was deemed a prerequisite for emancipation. According to some jurists -especially among the Shi'a - only Muslim slaves should be liberated. It is a requirement for this sustenance to be of the same standard generally found in the locality and it is also recommended for the slave to have the same standard of food and clothing as the master.
If the master refuses to provide the required sustenance, the slave may complain to a judge, who may then penalize the master through sale of her or his goods as necessary for the slave's keep. If the master does not have sufficient wealth to facilitate this, she or he must either sell, hire out, or manumit the slave as ordered.
Slaves also have the right to a period of rest during the hottest parts of the day during the summer. As slaves are regarded as inferior in Islamic law, death at the hands of a free man does not require that the latter be killed in retaliation.
At the same time, slaves themselves possess a lessened responsibility for their actions, and receive half the penalty required upon a free man. William Gervase Clarence-Smith, Islam and Slavery Slaves were also used for domestic work, military service, sexual slavery and civil administration.
The slave trade Muslims did play a significant role in the slave trade itself as providers of slaves to others. Elite slavery Elite slavery Something particular to Islamic slave systems was the creation of a slave elite in some Muslim societies that allowed individuals to achieve considerable status, and even power and wealth, while still remaining in some form of 'enslavement'.
The slave elite had enormous value to their Muslim masters because they were a military and administrative group made up of 'outsiders' who didn't have tribal and family allegiances that could conflict with their loyalty to their masters.
It was believed that a corps of highly trained slaves loyal only to the ruler and dependent entirely on his good will would serve the state more reliably and efficiently than a hereditary nobility, whose interests might compete with those of the ruler. Peirce, The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, The paradox of elite slavery Elite slavery is something of a paradox: One answer is that the slave gets authority and high office because they are dependant on the person who gives them their authority and status and who could remove that status if they chose.
- Slavery in Islam
- The Truth About Islam and Sex Slavery History Is More Complicated Than You Think
- Islamic sexual jurisprudence
Thus elite slaves must give total loyalty and obedience to their master in order to maintain their privileges. Another view is that the slave who achieves elite status is no longer really a slave, and is able to use their position and power to free themselves of many of the limitations of slavery.
Islamic views on slavery
This is less convincing since even elite slaves are at risk of losing their privileged status until they break free completely. The dependency was not all one way - the masters in many ways relied on their elite slaves, because those slaves were the only people they could really trust. And there was another reason why elite slaves were valuable - precisely because they were slaves, the elite slaves were free of some of the restrictions that limited free people, and this allowed them to do things for their masters that their masters could not otherwise achieve.
Examples of elite slavery Two examples of elite slavery were the Mamluks and the Devshirme system. The Mamluks were 'slave soldiers' who eventually came to rule Egypt for over two centuries from until overthrown by the Ottomans in the 16th century.
After a brief period of oppression the Mamluks were able, once again, to play a significant role in running the country. Mamluks were originally soldiers captured in Central Asia, but later boys aged were specifically taken or bought to be trained as slave soldiers. Their slave status was shown by the name 'Mamluk' which means 'owned'.
Although the Mamluks were not free men they could not, for example, pass anything on to their children they were elite slaves who were held in high regard as professional soldiers loyal to their Islamic masters. Historians have been fascinated by the uniqueness of the Mamluk phenomenon. It was inhuman in some respects for example, Mamluks being denied the opportunity to bequeath their positions and privileges to their sonsyet it provided Islam with a superb military force and a sophisticated political system.
Michael Winter, Egyptian Society under Ottoman Rule,In 13th century Egypt loyalty to the masters dissolved and the Mamluks established themselves as the ruling dynasty. Once the Mamluks had successfully revolted against their masters they were, of course, no longer slaves.
They remained in power for the period The basic ideal of military slavery - the Mamluk's total loyalty to his master who had bought, trained, maintained and freed him - was a pillar of Mamluk society in Ottoman Egypt, as it had been in the Mamluk Sultanate. When the master decided that his Mamluk had reached maturity and was ready to assume an office, he set him free, and 'allowed him to grow his beard.
The master often appointed these former slaves to army posts, to the beylicate [the beys were high ranking emirs who held important positions in Egyptian government], or to the regimental command. Very often, the master decided whom his former slave would marry, a decision which could advance the Mamluk socially and financially.
Michael Winter, Egyptian Society under Ottoman Rule,The devshirme system The devshirme system introduced in the 14th century compelled non-Muslims in parts of the Ottoman Empire to hand over some of their children to be converted to Islam and work as slaves. Some writers say that between half a million to one million people were enslaved in this way over the centuries.
Conquered Christian communities, especially in the Balkans, had to surrender twenty percent of their male children to the state. Some of these were trained for government service, where they were able to reach very high ranks, even that of Grand Vezir.
Many of the others served in the elite military corps of the Ottoman Empire, called the Janissaries, which was almost exclusively made up of forced converts from Christianity. The devshirme played a key role in Sultan Mehmet's conquest of Constantinople, and from then on regularly held very senior posts in the imperial administration.
BBC - Religions - Islam: Slavery in Islam
This status enabled some of the 'slaves' to become both powerful and wealthy. Their status remained restricted, and their children were not permitted to inherit their wealth or follow in their footsteps. Not all writers agree that the devshirme system was beneficial as well as oppressive, and point out that many Christian families were hostile and resentful about it - which is perhaps underlined by the use of force to impose the system.
The devshirme system continued until the end of the seventeenth century. Eunuchs Male slaves who had had their sexual organs removed were called eunuchs, and played an important part in some Muslim societies as they did in some other cultures.
They had the advantage for their masters of not being subject to sexual influence, and as they were unlikely to marry, they had no family ties to hinder their devotion to duty.
Eunuch slavery involved compulsory mutilation, which usually took place between the ages of 8 and Without modern medical skills and anaesthetics this was painful, and often led to fatal complications, and sometimes to physical or psychological problems for those who survived the operation. Eunuchs had a particular role as guardians of the harem and were the main way in which the women of the harem had contact with the world outside.
In the Ottoman Empire eunuchs from Africa held considerable power from the mid sixteenth century to the eighteenth.
It's recorded that the Ottoman family owned eunuchs as late asof whom 35 'bore a title of some seniority'. Eunuchs could also play important military roles. Sexual slavery Sexual slavery - the harem Concubinage may be defined as the more or less permanent cohabitation outside the marriage bond of a man with a woman or women, whose position would be that of secondary wives, women bought, acquired by gift, captured in war, or domestic slaves. Encyclopaedia of Islam Muslim cultures are thought to have had more female slaves than male slaves.
Enslaved women were given many tasks and one of the most common was working as a domestic servant. But some female slaves were forced to become sex workers: Concubines were women who were sexually available to their master, but not married to him. A Muslim man could have as many concubines as he could afford.
Concubinage was not unique to Islam; the Bible records that King Solomon and King David both had concubines, and it is recorded in other cultures too. Being a concubine did have some benefits: The child was also free and would inherit from their father as any other children.
Concubinage was not prostitution in the commercial sense both because that was explicitly forbidden and because only the owner could legitimately have sex with a female slave; anyone else who had sex with her was guilty of fornication. The harem Concubines lived in the harem, an area of the household where women lived separately from men.
The nature of Ottoman harems is described by Ehud R Toledano: The harem system grew out of the need in Ottoman society to achieve gender segregation and limit women's accessibility to men who did not belong to their family. Households were divided into two separate sections: At the head of the women's part reigned the master's mother or his first wife out of a maximum of four wives allowed by Islam.