Soviet-East European relationship one in which direct pressure is much less needed. An additional Soviet purpose has been the strengthening of Party. A comprehensive survey of Soviet East-European relations since , analyzing Soviet goals in Eastern Europe, the successes and failures of Soviet policy in. Sep 28, For more than a decade after the Soviet invasion of Hungary in late , relative calm prevailed in Soviet–East European relations. From the.
Armour points out that the Cyrillic alphabet use is not a strict determinant for Eastern Europe, where from Croatia to Poland and everywhere in between, the Latin alphabet is used. This period is also called the east-central European golden age of around International relations — and Interwar era A major result of the First World War was the breakup of the Russian, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman empires, as well as partial losses to the German Empire.
A surge of ethnic nationalism created a series of new states in Eastern Europe, validated by the Versailles Treaty of Poland was reconstituted after the partitions of the s had divided it between Germany, Austria, and Russia.
Eastern Europe - Wikipedia
Austria and Hungary had much-reduced boundaries. Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania likewise were independent. Many of the countries were still largely rural, with little industry and only a few urban centers.
Nationalism was the dominant force but most of the countries had ethnic or religious minorities who felt threatened by majority elements.
Nearly all became democratic in the s, but all of them except Czechoslovakia and Finland gave up democracy during the depression years of the s, in favor of autocratic or strong-man or single-party states. The new states were unable to form stable military alliances, and one by one were too weak to stand up against Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union, which took them over between and The region was the main battlefield in the Second World War —45with German and Soviet armies sweeping back and forth, with millions of Jews killed by the Nazis, and millions of others killed by disease, starvation, and military action, or executed after being deemed as politically dangerous.
It did not reach Yugoslavia and Albania however. Finland was free but forced to be neutral in the upcoming Cold War. The region fell to Soviet control and Communist governments were imposed. Yugoslavia and Albania had their own Communist regimes.
The Eastern Bloc with the onset of the Cold War in was mostly behind the Western European countries in economic rebuilding and progress. Winston Churchill, in his famous "Sinews of Peace" address of March 5, at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouristressed the geopolitical impact of the "iron curtain": From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.
Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Eastern Bloc during the Cold War to [ edit ] Further information: Eastern Bloc Eastern Europe after usually meant all the European countries liberated and then occupied by the Soviet army.
All the countries in Eastern Europe adopted communist modes of control. These countries were officially independent from the Soviet Union, but the practical extent of this independence — except in Yugoslavia, Albania, and to some extent Romania — was quite limited. Marxist—Leninist ideology reinforces other characteristics of political culture that create an attitude of competition and conflict with other states.
According to the program, "the main goals and guidelines of the CPSU's international policy" included ensuring favorable external conditions conducive to building communism in the Soviet Union; eliminating the threat of world war; disarmament ; strengthening the "world socialist system"; developing "equal and friendly" relations with "liberated" [Third World] countries; peaceful coexistence with the capitalist countries; and solidarity with communist and revolutionary-democratic parties, the international workers' movement, and national liberation struggles.
After Mikhail Gorbachev became general Secretary of the Communist Party infor instance, some Western analysts discerned in the ranking of priorities a possible de-emphasis of Soviet support for national liberation movements.
Although the emphasis and ranking of priorities were subject to change, two basic goals of Soviet foreign policy remained constant: These analysts have assessed Soviet behavior in the s and s as placing primary emphasis on relations with the United States, which was considered the foremost threat to the national security of the Soviet Union.
Third priority was given to the littoral or propinquitous states along the southern border of the Soviet Union: Regions near to, but not bordering, the Soviet Union were assigned fourth priority. Last priority was given to sub-Saharan Africathe islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceansand Latin Americaexcept insofar as these regions either provided opportunities for strategic basing or bordered on strategic naval straits or sea lanes.
In general, Soviet foreign policy was most concerned with superpower relations and, more broadly, relations between the members of NATO and the Warsaw Pactbut during the s Soviet leaders pursued improved relations with all regions of the world as part of its foreign policy objectives.
International relations — and Germany—Soviet Union relations before There were three distinct phases in Soviet foreign policy between the conclusion of the Russian Civil War and the Nazi-Soviet Pact indetermined in part by political struggles within the USSR, and in part by dynamic developments in international relations and the effect these had on Soviet security.
Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviksonce in power, believed their October Revolution would ignite the world's socialists and lead to a "World Revolution. Indeed, Lenin set out to "liberate" all of Asia from imperialist and capitalist control. His Immediate priority was no longer a worldwide revolution, but protection of the revolution in Russia, which provided the basis for all future developments. The Bolsheviks seized power in Russia in November but they could not stop German armies which advanced rapidly deep into Russia.
In early Marchafter bitter disputes among Bolshevik leaders, they agreed to harsh German peace terms at Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Russia now was helping Germany win the war by freeing up a million German soldiers for the Western Front  and by "relinquishing much of Russia's food supply, industrial base, fuel supplies, and communications with Western Europe.
Foreign relations of the Soviet Union
With Brest-Litovsk the spectre of German domination in Eastern Europe threatened to become reality, and the Allies now began to think seriously about military intervention [in Russia]. In Britain sent in money and some troops to support the anti-Bolshevik "White" counter-revolutionaries. However, the Bolsheviks, operating a unified command from a central location, defeated all the opposition one by one and took full control of Russia, as well as breakaway provinces such as Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan.
Bainbridge Colbythe American Secretary of State, in announced an American policy of refusing to deal with the new regime. It is their [Bolshevik] understanding that the very existence of Bolshevism in Russia, the maintenance of their own rule, depends, and must continue to depend, upon the occurrence of revolutions in all other great civilized nations, including the United States, which will overthrow and destroy their governments and set up Bolshevist rule in their stead.
They have made it quite plain that they intend to use every means, including, of course, diplomatic agencies, to promote such revolutionary movements in other countries. They changed to a new policy of both seeking pragmatic co-operation with the Western powers when it suited Soviet interests while at the same time trying to promote a Communist revolution whenever possible. After the failure of these efforts, Lenin, assuming that capitalism was not going to collapse at once as he had hoped, made a major effort in the early s to lure German corporations into investing in the Soviet Union as a way of modernizing the country.
In the mids, a policy of peaceful co-existence began to emerge, with Soviet diplomats attempting to end the country's isolation, and concluding bilateral arrangements with capitalist governments.
Agreement was reached with Germany, Europe's other pariah, in the Treaty of Rapallo in These facilities operated until After Lenin's death inTrotsky and the internationalists were opposed by Joseph Stalin and Nikolai Bukharinwho developed the notion of Socialism in One Country. The foreign policy counterpart of Socialism in One Country was that of the United Frontwith foreign Communists urged to enter into alliances with reformist left-wing parties and national liberation movements of all kinds.
The high point of this strategy was the partnership in China between the Chinese Communist Party and the nationalist Kuomintanga policy favoured by Stalin in particular, and a source of bitter dispute between him and Trotsky. The Popular Front policy in China effectively crashed to ruin inwhen Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-shek massacred the native Communists and expelled all of his Soviet advisors, notably Mikhail Borodin.
After defeating opponents from both the left led by Trotsky and Grigory Zinoviev and the right led by Nikolai BukharinStalin began the wholesale collectivization of Soviet agriculture, accompanied by a major program of planned industrialization. Attack social democratic parties[ edit ] This new radical phase was paralleled by the formulation of a new doctrine in the International, that of the so-called Third Periodan ultra-left switch in policy, which argued that social democracywhatever shape it took, was a form of social fascismsocialist in theory but fascist in practice.
All foreign Communist parties — increasingly agents of Soviet policy — were to concentrate their efforts in a struggle against their rivals in the working-class movement, ignoring the threat of real fascism.
There were to be no united fronts against a greater enemy. The catastrophic effects of this policy, and the negative effect it had on Soviet security, was to be fully demonstrated by Adolf Hitler 's seizure of power in Germany infollowed by the destruction of the German Communist Partythe strongest in Europe.
The Third Way and social fascism were quickly dropped into the dustbin of history. Popular Front Communists and parties on the left were increasingly threatened by the growth of the Nazi movement. Hitler came to power in January and rapidly consolidated his control over Germany, destroyed the communist and socialist movements in Germany, and rejected the restraints imposed by the Versailles treaty. Stalin in reversed his decision in to attack socialists, and introduced his new plan: The new slogan was: Under this policy Communist Parties were instructed to form broad alliances with all anti-fascist parties with the aim of both securing social advance at home and a military alliance with the USSR to isolate the fascist dictatorships.
The Popular Front approach played a major role in Resistance movements in France and other countries conquered by Germany after After the war it played a major role in French and Italian politics. The new policy led to the Soviet Union joining the League of Nations in and the subsequent non-aggression pacts with France and Czechoslovakia.
In the League the Soviets were active in demanding action against imperialist aggression, a particular danger to them after the Japanese invasion of Manchuriawhich eventually resulted in the Soviet-Japanese Battle of Khalkhin Gol. Ignoring the agreement it signed to avoid involvement in the Spanish Civil Warthe USSR sent arms and troops and organized volunteers to fight for the republican government.The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
Communist forces systematically killed their old enemies the Spanish anarchists, even though they were on the same Republican side. In the face of continually dragging and seemingly hopeless negotiations with Britain and France, a new cynicism and hardness entered Soviet foreign relations when Litvinov was replaced by Vyacheslav Molotov in May Diplomats purged[ edit ] InStalin took total personal control of the party, by purging and executing tens of thousands of high-level and mid-level party officials, especially the old Bolsheviks who had joined before The entire diplomatic service was downsized; many consular offices abroad were closed, and restrictions were placed on the activities and movements of foreign diplomats in the USSR.
About a third of all foreign ministry officials were shot or imprisoned, including 62 of the most senior officials. Key ambassadorial posts abroad, such as those in Tokyo, Warsaw, Washington, Bucharest, and Budapest, were vacant.