Ernst Cassirer (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Jun 30, Cassirer, by contrast, had fruitful philosophical relations with leading guise of a parallel interpretation of the philosophy of Kant [Heidegger ]. “Platonic” idea that the thoroughgoing application of mathematics to .. (b) “ Erkenntnistheorie nebst den Grenzfragen der Logik und Denkpsychologie. termine the order of the principal Platonic dialogues chronologically and philosophically. the more readily dispense with such a summary because those who have a more especial interest is Harmonia, admits no untruth; for untruth is no relation of his." Page . bischen andere Erkenntnistheorie: E. BLEULER. - The term. Most commentaries on Husserl's relationship to Lotze during that period have emphasized his debt to Lotze's interpretation of the Platonic theory of Ideas in Erkenntnistheorie,” which focuses on psychologism, the same year that Husserl.
For we no longer require that any particular mathematical structure be fixed for all time, but only that the historical-developmental sequence of such structures continuously converge.
So it is no wonder that, subsequent to taking up the professorship at Hamburg inCassirer devotes the rest of his career to this new philosophy of symbolic forms.
Warburg was an eminent art historian with a particular interest in ancient cult, ritual, myth, and magic as sources of archetypal forms of emotional expression later manifested in Renaissance art, and the Library therefore contained abundant materials both on artistic and cultural history and on ancient myth and ritual.
In particular, they lie at a deeper, autonomous level of spiritual life which then gives rise to the more sophisticated forms by a dialectical developmental process.
From mythical thought, religion and art develop; from natural language, theoretical science develops. The most basic and primitive type of symbolic meaning is expressive meaning, the product of what Cassirer calls the expressive function Ausdrucksfunktion of thought, which is concerned with the experience of events in the world around us as charged with affective and emotional significance, as desirable or hateful, comforting or threatening.
It is this type of meaning that underlies mythical consciousness, for Cassirer, and which explains its most distinctive feature, namely, its total disregard for the distinction between appearance and reality.
Similarly, there is no essential difference in efficacy between the living and the dead, between waking experiences and dreams, between the name of an object and the object itself, and so on.
Working together with the fundamentally pragmatic orientation towards the world exhibited in the technical and instrumental use of tools and artifacts, it is in natural language, according to Cassirer, that the representative function of thought is then most clearly visible.
We are now able to distinguish the enduring thing-substance, on the one side, from its variable manifestations from different points of view and on different occasions, on the other, and we thereby arrive at a new fundamental distinction between appearance and reality. This distinction is then expressed in its most developed form, for Cassirer, in the linguistic notion of propositional truth and thus in the propositional copula.
The distinction between appearance and reality, as expressed in the propositional copula, then leads dialectically to a new task of thought, the task of theoretical science, of systematic inquiry into the realm of truths. So it is here, and only here, that the generalized and purified form of neo- Kantianism distinctive of the Marburg School gives an accurate characterization of human thought. Recent commentators [Skidelsky ] [Moss ] have illuminatingly built on this circumstance in further articulating the relationship between Cassirer and Hegel.
Hegel had conceived nature Natur and spirit Geist as two different expressions of a single divine infinite Reason, which manifests itself temporally from two different points of view. His project of an encyclopedia of philosophical sciences had three parts, the logic, the philosophy of nature, and the philosophy of spirit, where the logic had the task of depicting the dialectical conceptual structure of infinite divine Reason itself.
But this Hegelian project for securing the ultimate logico-metaphysical identity of nature and spirit found ever fewer followers as the century progressed, as the rising tide of neo-Kantianism — aided by further developments within the natural sciences instigated by Hermann von Helmholtz — undermined the appeal of the original Naturphilosophie of Schelling and Hegel together with their Absolute Reason.
The result was the problem of the Naturwissenschaften and Geisteswissenschaften as it presented itself to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Whereas intersubjective validity in the natural sciences rests on universal laws of nature ranging over all physical places and times, an analogous type of intersubjective validity arises in the cultural sciences independently of such laws.
Universal cultural meaning thereby emerges only asymptotically, in a way similar to the genetic conception of knowledge of the Marburg School now seen as based on the significative function of thought.
Rather than an abstract mathematical relation of backwards-directed inclusion, however, we are concerned, in the historical cultural sciences, with a hermeneutical relation of backwards-directed interpretation and reinterpretation — and, as a result, there is no possibility, in these sciences, of reliably predicting the future.
Inhowever, Cassirer published a review of [Heidegger ], which took a different approach from his remarks at Davos. By building the Marburg conception of knowledge, in his new philosophy of culture, on top of the more primitive forms of mythical thought [Ausdruckswahrnehmen] and ordinary language [Dingwahrnehmen], Cassirer takes himself to have done justice to the insights of both Hegel and Heidegger while avoiding both the infinite divine reason of the former and the radical human finitude of the latter.
In the case of the idea of transcendental freedom, for example, we are only able to determine it negatively from a theoretical point of viewas a species of causality that is not bound by the conditions of time-determination governing the phenomenal world.
In the Critique of Practical Reason, however, Kant asserts that transcendental freedom acquires a determinate content from pure practical reason, through our immediate awareness of the moral law as normatively binding on our will as a fact of reasonand that the practical objective reality thereby conferred on this idea can then be transferred to the ideas of God and Immortality.
This is because the moral law unconditionally commands us to seek the Highest Good — the realization of the Kingdom of Ends here on earth — which is an infinite task requiring infinite practical faith and hope. The resulting divergence from the indeterminate and merely potential infinity arising within theoretical reason is visible in the famous passage on the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me at the end of the Critique of Practical Reason, from which Cassirer quotes in his review of Heidegger.
Kierkegaard loved to walk them. InKierkegaard wrote, "I had real Christian satisfaction in the thought that, if there were no other, there was definitely one man in Copenhagen whom every poor person could freely accost and converse with on the street; that, if there were no other, there was one man who, whatever the society he most commonly frequented, did not shun contact with the poor, but greeted every maidservant he was acquainted with, every manservant, every common laborer.
At the other end was the Royal Theatre where Fru Heiberg performed. Based on a speculative interpretation of anecdotes in Kierkegaard's unpublished journals, especially a rough draft of a story called "The Great Earthquake",  some early Kierkegaard scholars argued that Michael believed he had earned God's wrath and that none of his children would outlive him. He is said to have believed that his personal sins, perhaps indiscretions such as cursing the name of God in his youth  or impregnating Ane out of wedlock, necessitated this punishment.
Though five of his seven children died before he did, both Kierkegaard and his brother Peter Christian Kierkegaard outlived him. And by the same token that no one who truly believed in the forgiveness of sin would live their own life as an objection against the existence of forgiveness. This fear of not finding forgiveness is devastating.
Hold not our sins up against us but hold us up against our sins so that the thought of You when it wakens in our soul, and each time it wakens, should not remind us of what we have committed but of what You did forgive, not of how we went astray but of how You did save us! He went on to study theology at the University of Copenhagen. He had little interest in historical works, philosophy dissatisfied him, and he couldn't see "dedicating himself to Speculation ".
He was then twenty-three years old; he had something quite irregular in his entire form and had a strange coiffure. His hair rose almost six inches above his forehead into a tousled crest that gave him a strange, bewildered look.
Although a serious, almost austere tone pervaded the Kierkegaard's house, I have the firm impression that there was a place for youthful vivacity too, even though of a more sedate and home-made kind than one is used to nowadays. The house was open for an 'old-fashioned hospitality'" She was never mentioned in Kierkegaard's works. Ane died on 31 Julyage 66, possibly from typhus.
On 11 August, Kierkegaard wrote: I so deeply desired that he might have lived a few years more Right now I feel there is only one person E.
Søren Kierkegaard - Wikipedia
Boesen with whom I can really talk about him. He was a 'faithful friend. Lund was a good friend of Georg Brandes and Julius Lange. At lunch one day I overturned a salt-shaker. Passionate as he was and intense as he easily could become, he began to scold so severely that he even said that I was a prodigal and things like that. Then I made an objection, reminding him of an old episode in the family when my sister Nicoline had dropped a very expensive tureen and Father had not said a word but pretended it was nothing at all.
Well, you see, it was such an expensive thing that no scolding was needed; she realized quite well that it was wrong, but precisely when it is a trifle there must be a scolding. Journals X3A78 Journals[ edit ] The cover of the first English edition of The Journals, edited by Alexander Dru in According to Samuel Hugo Bergmann"Kierkegaard's journals are one of the most important sources for an understanding of his philosophy".
The first English edition of the journals was edited by Alexander Dru in His question was whether or not one can have a spiritual confidant. He wrote the following in his Concluding Postscript: If such a relation is assumed, it actually means that the party has ceased to be spirit.
The following passage, from 1 Augustis perhaps his most oft-quoted aphorism and a key quote for existentialist studies: What matters is to find a purpose, to see what it really is that God wills that I shall do; the crucial thing is to find a truth which is truth for me, to find the idea for which I am willing to live and die.
Not until a man has inwardly understood himself and then sees the course he is to take does his life gain peace and meaning; only then is he free of that irksome, sinister traveling companion — that irony of life, which manifests itself in the sphere of knowledge and invites true knowing to begin with a not-knowing Socrates just as God created the world from nothing. But in the waters of morality it is especially at home to those who still have not entered the tradewinds of virtue. Here it tumbles a person about in a horrible way, for a time lets him feel happy and content in his resolve to go ahead along the right path, then hurls him into the abyss of despair.
Often it lulls a man to sleep with the thought, "After all, things cannot be otherwise," only to awaken him suddenly to a rigorous interrogation. Frequently it seems to let a veil of forgetfulness fall over the past, only to make every single trifle appear in a strong light again. When he struggles along the right path, rejoicing in having overcome temptation's power, there may come at almost the same time, right on the heels of perfect victory, an apparently insignificant external circumstance which pushes him down, like Sisyphus, from the height of the crag.
Often when a person has concentrated on something, a minor external circumstance arises which destroys everything.
- Ernst Cassirer
- Hilary Putnam
As in the case of a man who, weary of life, is about to throw himself into the Thames and at the crucial moment is halted by the sting of a mosquito. Frequently a person feels his very best when the illness is the worst, as in tuberculosis.
In vain he tries to resist it but he has not sufficient strength, and it is no help to him that he has gone through the same thing many times; the kind of practice acquired in this way does not apply here. Not only does Scotus lay the foundations for a renewed and positive reception of Stoic philosophy, but he also heralds the turn to the individual object and to the empiricism characteristic of modernity.
The educational system of the Middle Ages, consequently, cannot be understood as a continuation of the Hellenistic and Roman educational ideal, but must be seen as Platonic and Middle Platonic in its origins. But, as Erler further shows, the Stoics only retain the outward form of the Platonic doctrine, while essentially transforming its content: As a whole, this volume attests to continuing Germanophone contributions to the history of ideas and philology.
It thus makes an essential contribution to a continuing reevaluation of the Middle Ages and of many of the concepts the discovery of self-determination, of freedom, of self-reflective thought, etc. While this historical context is familiar to scholars of medieval and Neoplatonic thought, the view of a revival in philosophical and scientific learning from the midth and 15th centuries onward has become an article of faith of much modern and contemporary philosophy.
Table of contents Martianus Capella: Strategien der Selbstpflege bei Platon und im Epikureismus 3.